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  • Lastly, it is essential to regularly monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions implemented to counter Malaria. In this case, technically robust and suitable epidemiological or social research techniques should be used to monitor and assess various implemented interventions and programme activities geared towards preventing and controlling Malaria (WHO, 2008). The key aim of carrying out these measures is to quantitatively weigh the effectiveness of such programmes or interventions so as to provide evidence on the areas that require improvement and also to show to policy makers and decision makers the importance and effectiveness of such modes of operation or interventions. This will in turn encourage more efforts to be directed towards interventions or programmes that implement effective prevention and control of Malaria (AMREF, 2006).

Lastly, it is essential to regularly monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions implemented to counter Malaria. In this case, technically robust and suitable epidemiological or social research techniques should be used to monitor and assess various implemented interventions and programme activities geared towards preventing and controlling Malaria (WHO, 2008). The key aim of carrying out these measures is to quantitatively weigh the effectiveness of such programmes or interventions so as to provide evidence on the areas that require improvement and also to show to policy makers and decision makers the importance and effectiveness of such modes of operation or interventions. This will in turn encourage more efforts to be directed towards interventions or programmes that implement effective prevention and control of Malaria (AMREF, 2006). Essay Example

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Prevention and Control of Malaria

Malaria is a major health issue in India and it can be attributed to sizeable economic loss and mortality (Kumar et al, 2007; Dash et al 2008). As compared to other countries around the world, the impacts of Malaria in India is critical due to factors such poverty and climate change. For instance, climate change in India in the form of trends of heavy rainfall has been attributed to vector production and the transmission of Malaria (Bouma et al, 1995; Bouma & van der Kaay, 1994; Martens et al, 1995). As a result, the prevention and control of Malaria is high in the agenda of the government and health practitioners in India. Over time, controlling and preventing Malaria has proved to be a challenge mainly because of the adaptable nature of the parasites and vectors that are involved. Nevertheless, various principles and strategies have proved to be effective in the prevention and control of Malaria (Lal, Sonal & Phukan 2000; Sharma 2003;
Phillips, 2001).

One of the key principle or strategy that can be used in the prevention and control of Malaria is Vaccine development. The development of vaccine against malaria is very crucial in efforts geared towards the prevention, control and eradication of Malaria. Currently, there are no effective Malaria vaccines mainly due the lack of adequate research on the complex nature of the Plasmodium parasite and important processes such as disease pathogenesis and host immune protection (Bjorkman & Phillips-Howard, 1990). These factors have in turn prevented efforts directed towards vaccine development (Sherman, 1998;
Dunnel et al 2005; Akhtar, Dutt & Wadhwa, 2010).

Secondly, improved diagnostics is imperative in the control of Malaria. To date, the most reliable technique used for diagnosing malaria is the use of microscopes to evaluate blood smears. This procedure is time-consuming, difficult to use in poor –field settings and cannot be used to detect the resistance of drugs (Casman & Dowlatabadi, 2002). Therefore, there is need to develop advanced and improved diagnostics techniques that diagnose the kind of parasite causing the infection and recognise the drug resistance profile of the parasites(Institute of Medicine et al, 1991;
Singh et al 2010).

Moreover, it is essential to develop vector control measures in order to prevent Malaria (WHO, 1995). Some of the control measures that should be used include; the use of insecticides such as DDT, bed nests and environmental modifications in order to destroy the breeding grounds for pesticides (Henk, 2009;
Bhattacharya, 2006 Billingsley & Sinden, 1997). In addition, conducting sensitization campaigns on how to prevent Malaria is essential. Educating or sensitizing people on the harmful effects of Malaria, how it is caused and how it can be prevented is an effective measure of preventing and controlling Malaria
(Malaria Control Programme Annual Report, 2007; Crosse, 2006). It is essential to educate people on how to recognise signs and symptoms associated with Malaria (Smith, Fitzpatrick & Hoyt, 2010). Furthermore, it is important to focus on special population who are most vulnerable to Malaria. For instance, pregnant women, infants and young children are the most vulnerable population. Therefore, extensive sensitization campaigns should be carried out in order to cater for the needs of this population (AMREF (2006).

Lastly, it is essential to regularly monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions implemented to counter Malaria. In this case, technically robust and suitable epidemiological or social research techniques should be used to monitor and assess various implemented interventions and programme activities geared towards preventing and controlling Malaria (WHO, 2008). The key aim of carrying out these measures is to quantitatively weigh the effectiveness of such programmes or interventions so as to provide evidence on the areas that require improvement and also to show to policy makers and decision makers the importance and effectiveness of such modes of operation or interventions. This will in turn encourage more efforts to be directed towards interventions or programmes that implement effective prevention and control of Malaria (AMREF, 2006).

References

Akhtar, R., Dutt, A. & Wadhwa, V. (2010). Malaria in South Asia: Eradication and Resurgence During the Second Half of the Twentieth Century. New York: Springer.

AMREF (2006). Malaria prevention and control strategy 2006-2010. Retrieved on August 30, 2011 from <http://www.amref.org/docs/malaria_strategy.pdf>

Bouma, J., Dye, C. & van der Kaay, J. (1995). ‘El Niño Southern Oscillation’ as a possible early warning system for Falciparum malaria epidemics in Northern Pakistan. In Epidemiology and Control of Malaria in Northern Pakistan, Dordrecht, 1995, pp.45–57.

Bouma, J. & van der Kaay, J. (1994). Epidemic malaria in India and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation: Health and Climate Change. Lancet, 1994, 344, 1638–1639.

Bhattacharya, S., Sharma, C., Dhiman, R.C. & Mitra, A.P. (2006). Current Science 90(3): 369- 375.

Billingsley, F. & Sinden, E. (1997). Determinants of malaria-mosquito specificity. Parasitol Today. 1997; 13:297–301.

Bjorkman, A. & Phillips-Howard, A. 1990,The epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990; 84:177–180.

Crosse, M. (2006). Global Malaria Control: U. S. and Multinational Investments and Implementation Challenges. New York: DIANE publishing

Casman, E. & Dowlatabadi, H. (2002). The contextual determinants of Malaria. New York.: Resource for the future.

Dash, A.P., Valecha, N., Anvikar, A.R., Kumar, A. (2008). Malaria in India: challenges and opportunities.
Journal of Biosciences 33(4): 583-592.

Dunnel, M.W., Singh, N., Shukla, M., Valecha, N., Bhattacharyya, P.C., Dev, V., Patel, K., Mohapatra, M.K., Lakhani, J., Benner, R., Lele, C. & Patki, K. (2005). A Multicenter Study of Azithromycin, Alone and in Combination with Chloroquine, for the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in India. Journal of Infectious Diseases 191 (10): 1582-1588.

Henk, V. (2009). «Global Status of DDT and Its Alternatives for Use in Vector Control to Prevent Disease». Environmental Health Perspectives
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Institute of Medicine (US) & Committee for the study of Malaria Prevention and Control: Status Review and Alternative Strategies. (1991). Malaria: Obstacles and Opportnities.New York: National Academies Press.

Kumar, A., Valecha, N., Jain, T. & Dash, A.P. (2007). Burden of Malaria in India: Retrospective and prospective view. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 77(6): 69-78.

Lal, S., Sonal, G. & Phukan, P. (2000). Status of Malaria in India. Journal of Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 19-23.

Martens, M., Niessen, W., Rotmans, J., Jetten, H. & McMichael, J.(1995), Potential impact of global climate change on malaria risk. Environ. Health Perspect., 1995, 103, 458–464.

Malaria Control Programme Annual Report. (2007), Ranchi, Jharkhand: National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Directorate of Health Services/

Phillips, R.S. (2001). Current Status of Malaria and Potential for Control. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 14(1): 208–226.

Sherman, I. (1998). Malaria: parasite biology, pathogenesis and protection. New York: ASM Press.

Singh, R.K., Dhiman, R.C., Mittal, P.K. & Das, M.K. (2010). Susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides in Gumla district,Jharkhand state, India. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 47 (2): 116-118.

Sharma, S. K., Pradhan, P. & Padhi, D. M.(2001). Socio-economic factors associated with malaria in a tribal area of Orissa, India. Indian Journal of Public Health 45(3): 93-98.

Sharma, V.P. (2003). Malaria and poverty in India. Current Science 84(4): 513-515.

Smith, B., Fitzpatrick, J. & Hoyt, P. (2010). Problem solving for better health: a global perspective. New York: Springer

World Health Organization. (1995.) Vector control for malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. WHO Tech Rep Ser. 1995; 857:1–91.

World Health Organization (2008). World Malaria Report 2008. Geneva: World Health Organization