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Research Methods Analysis

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Qn1 (i). Experimental research means carrying out the actual tests that involves manipulating one or several variables as well as control to find out whether dependent variables give any change. Time, consistency in cause relationships and great correlation magnitude are the key guiding principles on where to apply this research design. True experiment has to employ random selection, random assignment, and control, and manipulation elements. The design is highly applied in sciences like medicine, biology, chemistry, physics, psychology and sociology among others (Datta, Khyang, Kyang, Kheyang, Kyang and Chapola 2015).

(ii) Naturalistic research design is a research method that involves gathering information regarding variables or subjects in their natural habitat without any human manipulation or putting them to test. The research design is applied in cases where lab research is likely to alter the subject’s behavior, is cost prohibitive, and or unrealistic. The main goal of using this study method is to come up with information pertaining multiple, constructed realities of various participants as it is from their natural setting (Frey, Botan & Kreps, 1999).

Qn2 (i) Systematic reviews (SRs) involve gathering and synthesizing all available study results done to address a particular question. The SRs design uses procedures that are transparent to synthesize, evaluate and find out the outcome of relevant research. They also provide a platform for future updates. This research method ought to have where possible meta-analysis, included in all studies systematic analysis and coding, an unambiguous search strategy and explicit exclusion and inclusion criteria.

(ii) Public health policies and individual patients healthcare decisions ought to be informed by finest research evidence that is available. Evidence-based medicine practice entails individual clinical expertise amalgamation with the finest external clinical evidence available from systematic review and values of the patient and expectations. Health professionals need reliable evidence from substantial reviews for decision making in public health and clinical practice. Systematic reviews are thus best suited for the need of clinician due to time factor and the presence of robust medical literature within the internet and other libraries (Carpenter, 2011).

Qn 3. Carpenter (2011) Is good to note that alternative medicine are increasingly being used in US due to their highly pronounced efficacy compared to the conventional medication that they act faster, increased misguided information that they are always safe, low cost, readily available and low cost. These alternative medicines are used for minor to major disease management and treatment, including depression. St. John’s Wort (SJW) is one of highly used alternative medicine in US for treating disease over many years. It is currently, being used for treating both mild to moderate depression. The pharmacological research of the herb does not give explicit information on how the drug works, neither its quality nor its quantity composition. The challenge of relying on SJW as a depressive alternative treatment is that it has not been put under test to a larger study group as it did show unreliable result when a larger study group was used. Majority of persons going for SJW are those with persistent and pronounced depressive symptoms. There is much debate regarding the efficacy of the drug as studies show that it interacts with some drugs and has active hyperforin an active pharmachological ingredient that hinders uptake of other essential substances in the human body. Due to these underlying adverse effects on SJW; it remains still unsafe for use among the depressive patients and I would not recommend it for depressive persons.


Carpenter D.J. 2011. St.Jonn’s Wort and S-Adenosyl Methionine as “natural” alternatives to conventional antidepressants in the era of the suicidality boxed warning: what is the evidence for clinically relevant benefits. Alternative Medicine Review, 16(1). 17-39.

Frey L., Botan C. & Kreps G. 1999. Investigating communication: an introduction to research methods, 2nd edition, Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

O’Connor, E., Whitlock E. and Spring B. n.d. Introduction to systematic reviews. Retrieved 11/18/2015 from, http://www.ebbp.org/course_outlines/systematic_review/

Datta, R., Khyang N.U., Kyang H.K.P., Kheyang, H.A.P., Kyang M.C. and Chapola J. 2015. Participatory action research and researcher’s responsibilities: an experience with an indigenous community. Int. Jr. of Soci. Res.Meth., 18(6): 581-599