Journal Essay Example

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Journal 7

  1. Week 3 Seminar Paper:
    Cain, N., & Gradisar, M. (2010). Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review. Sleep Medicine, 11, 735-742.

General Issue Addressed in this Paper, There Importance and How Media Presence in Bedroom Affects Sleep

The general issues examined include the relationship that sleep has with the electronic media concerning schooling children as well as the adolescents. These include viewing of television, computer use, games that are electronic, internet, cell phones, and music. Many issues have been examined although bedtime delay and less total time for sleep are the main issues related to the use of media. In this paper, there has been a presentation and discussion of a model of ways, in which use of media can influence sleep.

Some of the impacts on sleep due to the presence media devices in the bedroom include delayed bedtimes, awakening times, and less sleep durations and during the weekdays and the weekends. Media presence in the bedroom causes disturbances in sleep behaviors. Some of these behaviors include bed and awakening time during weekends, sleep duration on weekdays, bedtime sleep disorders, and finally, anxiety. An overall media presence in bedroom has negative effects on children’s sleep patterns and that of wake, sleep durations and disorders.

Effect of TV Viewing on Sleep, Aspects of Sleep Consistently Affected By TV Viewing

Television viewing affects sleep because the more one is addicted to the behavior; the more he or she will spend much viewing it. This will lead to resistance to bedtime, delayed sleep, sleep anxiety, and short duration of sleep. Children who usually watch TV programs with violent content or content that is not appropriate for their age experiences disturbances in their sleep.

Mechanisms Explaining Effects of Electronic Media to Sleep

Some of the mechanisms that explain the effects of electronic media include behavioral and psychotherapeutic. A sleep medicine involves diagnoses disorders of sleep and involves therapy disorders related to sleep (Brainerd & Reyna 2005, p. 103).

  1. Week 6 Seminar Paper:
    Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B., (2000). Tricks of memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 123-127.

Methodology and Findings of the Research Report in This Paper

The research involved presentation of a list of words with a relation. The presentation was oral. The subject was required to remember as many words as possible from the list. The research reported on the paper tricks of memory used methods that included carrying out several experiments that analyzed the rate of false memories and the probability of correct memory, and discussions that consisted of groups to analyze the findings from the experiments. The results of the research show that, there are two fundamental remembering errors: forgetting activities that occurred previously, and remembering activities that did not happen at all or remembering them in different way than they occurred. Many subjects could remember words that share a relation but was not presented but with identical frequency with the ones presented.

Description of the Main Theoretical False Memory Explanation Effect

The main theoretical explanation for false memory effect including the following; if individuals recall what they understood, it required a list of assumptions detailed with reference to memory that has the capability of delivering this affair state. Memory of particular type of information may be accessible in a long time interval. Responses of memories, which are false, might happen just after the experience of events targeted.

Individual Difference Factors That Influence Susceptibility to False Memory Effect

Some of individual difference factors outlined in this research paper, which have an influence in susceptibility to the false memory effect are recall that are free are worse in adults who are older than those are that are young. Adults who are much older and patients suffering from Alzheimer, causes decrease in recalls that are accurate relative adults who are young, proximity of false recall of items that are critical (Corsini & Auerbach 1996, p. 34).

Implications of the Study

This study provides a laboratory situation that is tractable for learning the processes of cognition forming memories, which are false. This situation is that memories recoded and not recorded.

3. Week 7 Activity:


Involvements of Stroop Experiment, What Stroop Effect Is, and Class Results Obtained

Stroop effect involves demonstrating the interferences in the time of reaction of a given assignment. The effect has created a test that is psychological called the stroop experiment used in investigations and practices clinically based. The experiment administers varying identical experiments, which results in formation of three types of stimuli. The experiment examines an individual’s capabilities of psychology. The experiment measures attention that is selective, flexibility cognizable, and the speed for processing.

The results of the class showed that the letter with a single color condition produces a small stroop effect compare to the one with all colors. It has also showed that these words in return had a very large stroop effect compared to pseudo homophones. These were the results that were obtained from the first experiment and are satisfactory since they show the magnitude of the effect of stroop when only one letter is colored than when the whole word is colored. Finding associated with these experiments include; interference that is semantic and semantic affiliations. The third finding is both interference and affiliation that is semantic.

Suggestions to Modification of the Experiment

There is modification in the stroop experiment in order to examine various phenomena. Employment of a stroop assignment for the purposes of studying functions of frontal and brain imaging attention is necessary to modify the experiment to include other modalities of sense and the elements for the purposes of studying the impact of bilingualism. This is for investigating the influences of emotions when it comes to interferences. Researchers had to seek alternative ways to implement the test, as the original experiment requires skills, which were verbal. Approach tothis was in a way that same interference would be the result but reading abilities was not necessary (Notterman 1997, p. 288).

4. Week 11 Videos:


Drugs type of Methamphetamine, Disorders That It Treats and Its Generic Vulnerability

Methamphetamine consists of ice, crystals of clouds and glass. It treats obesity that is exogenous and the ADHD using food and drug administration in America. It is highly addictive though when you decide to withdraw; it is not as dangerous as the other drugs in Australia. The symptoms of withdrawal are common in all the drugs abused in Australia with use and relapse that is heavy very common.

Methamphetamine addiction develops, the drug tolerance meaning that the abusers should ingest larger quantities of it to gain the same high. It causes damages related to finances, legal, social, and health. It meets the following criteria; abuse of high potentials, and medical use in America. It results into severe dependence that is psychological and physical (Rawson 2006, p. 78).

It has a duration that is longer for action and a very huge amount of the drug remains in the body unchanged compared to other drugs. This means that it stays in the mind for longer time, thus, the stimulant effects are prolonged. Methamphetamine is manufactured compared to other drugs, which are extracted from the plants, makes it.

Addiction to ice has genetic vulnerability in that it can lead to abnormal loss of teeth. Infants that are born by mothers who are addicted have smaller significant gestational adjusted age of the circumference of the head and the measurements of the birth weight (Spalding 2007, p.52).

How methamphetamines Compares to Other Drugs in Australia

The duration for action is longer and large amounts of the drug remain in the body unchanged compared to other drugs. This means that it stays in the mind for longer time, thus, there is prolonged stimulant effect as compared to other drugs. Methamphetamine is manufactured compared to other drugs, which are extracted from the plants.


Brainerd, C. J & Reyna, V. F 2005, The science of false memory, New York, Oxford University Press.

Corsini, R. J & Auerbach, A. J 1996, Concise encyclopedia of psychology, New York, J. Wiley & Sons.

Notterman, J. M 1997, The evolution of psychology: Fifty years of the American psychologist, Washington, DC, American Psychological Association.

Rawson, R. A 2006, Methamphetamine: New knowledge, new treatments : clinician’s manual. Center City, Minn, Hazelden.

Spalding, F 2007, Methamphetamine: The dangers of crystal meth, New York, Rosen Pub.