Is establishing team work difficult in organisations?

  • Category:
    Management
  • Document type:
    Article
  • Level:
    Masters
  • Page:
    4
  • Words:
    2407

Table of Contents

2Executive summary

2Introduction

3Difficulties facing teamwork

4Theoretical perspectives

4Abraham Maslow theory

5Leadership theory

6Motivational theory

6Theory X and Y

7Concepts in establishing teamwork

7Sociotechnical concept:

7Ecological concept:

8Human Resources concept:

8Technological concept:

8Conclusion

9References

Executive summary

The difficulties that do face team building process are explored in this paper where different organizational situations are considered. Concepts and theories that can assist in explaining the difficulties that are likely to face teams in organizations are discussed. The theories are analyzed while conserving how they affect the behavior of the team members to demonstrate the possible changes that the management can face in the process of developing a team. Also, different works of literature have been reviewed in the process of gaining more knowledge concerning the team building and practices of the management that do affect the behavior of members of a team.

Introduction

Teamwork building can be faced by numerous challenges that do affect the behavior of the team members. For instance, the organizational challenges that can pose difficulties in the process of building a team are cultural diversity. Many organizations are facing challenges in managing their diverse workforce due to the differences that do exist among the employees. The differences are associated with different cultural orientation, experiences, and values that might affect the way the employees do interact in the organization (Martin, 2003). For instance, Walmart is among the many organizations that have been facing diverse workforce where the employees come from diverse backgrounds. Managing the differences that do exists among the employees is crucial in ensuring that the employees can interact hence creating good working relations. Good relations are considered crucial in the process of developing a team as the employees need to be able to interact well to guarantee efficient and effective team. According to scientific management theory, it is crucial to ensure good relations among the employees to ensure that there is an effective team. An effective team is crucial in ensuring the success of an organization as employees can work as a team effectively can easily be in a position to be committed to achieving the set goals. The effectiveness of a team can be realized by ensuring that attitudes of the employees towards the differences that might exist among themselves is positive (Cannon, Salas, and Converse, 2003). Failing to have a positive attitude for the differences can be challenging in the process of developing a team. The way an organization manages the differences that do exists among the employees is crucial in determining the relations existing among employees hence determining the team building process.

Difficulties facing teamwork

Aspects related to globalization can be held responsible for challenges that have been facing the team building process. Many employees from diverse cultures are being brought together in an organization where the way they interact do affect the team building process. For instance, globalization has enhanced communications systems where employees from different countries can find themselves working in the same organization. The way the management of the organization manages the diverse experience and beliefs of the employees determine the effectiveness of the team (McDonough, et al. 2001). Therefore, the management is responsible for ensuring that the differences are managed to improve the relations among n the employees hence assisting in boosting the relationship among the employees.

Social interactions among employees can also affect the effectiveness of team building process. For instance, production mechanisms do not encourage employee interactions such as a capital intensive mechanism that hinders teamwork spirit. The organizations that are capital intensive are likely to face difficulties in the process of building teams as the nature of operations do not encourage employee interactions. Such organizations rely heavily on the use of machine where most of the operations are automated thus reducing the social interactions of the employees in the workplaces. Organizations that have automated most of their operations need then to ensure that they work towards improving the social interactions as the nature of operations might hinder employee interactions. Besides, increased specialization in operations that has been brought by the advancements in technology does pose difficulties in the process of establishing teams. For instance, employees’ interactions in the process of discharging their job obligations are minimized leading to decreased interactions (Burstein and Diller, 2004). Therefore, technology can be said to hinder the development of the team in organizations through affecting the social skills of the employees. Many employees are highly interacting with machines making them lack the necessary social skills ha can build teamwork spirit.

Communication in the organization has also been affecting the process of establishing the teams in organizations. The level of communication in the organization affects the level of interactions among the employees as the management. The organizations that do not ensure effective communications are likely to face difficulties in the process of developing teams. The communication levels are determined by the management where the leadership adopted determines how the employees do interact thus determining the social interactions. For instance, dictatorship style of leadership does discourage communication hence hindering the developing of teamwork spirit (Langan, et al. 2004). The working environment created by such leadership style can lead to difficulties in developing teams in the organization. On the other hand, transformational leadership style can play crucial role in promoting teamwork as the level of communication is improved. The working conditions developed encourages interactions thus assessing in establishing teams in an organization.

Theoretical perspectives

Abraham Maslow theory

Abraham tried to identify the various needs that can be associated with members of a team. According to this theory, it is necessary to realize the social need in the place of work. social needs are said to affect the level of harmony in an organization where an organization that does realize the social needs of the employees are likely to assist in establishing good relations that are necessary for developing teamwork. Many organizations today have failed to realize the contributions of ensuring harmony in the workplace in establishing teamwork. The lack of ensuring that the social needs of the employees are met in an organization has been a challenge in the process of establishing teams. According to Abraham Maslow theory, meeting the social need can be crucial in promoting teamwork as the working environment can ensure proper interactions among the employees (Burgoon, Stern, and Dillman, 2001). Besides, meeting the needs of the employees as specified by Abraham, can assist in ensuring employee satisfaction that contributes a lot to the development of teamwork. The employee satisfaction can improve team establishment by enhancing the social interactions among the employees as they feel motivated to work in the organization.

Leadership theory

Leadership does affect the establishment team process as it affects the behavior and attitude of the employees. The various leadership styles employed determines the way the employees are motivated hence affecting their behavior. For instance, management can use leadership styles that do not create good relations among the employees where the leaders might not be fair in treating the employees. The leaders who fail to ensure fairness in the way the employees are handled might face challenges in establishing teams. The employees expected to be treated equally; thus, at situations where some employees are favored creates a hostile working environment that cannot promote good relations hence failing in establishing teamwork (Mohrman, et al. 2005). Also, the leadership adopted determines how the employees resets for the differences that do exists among themselves. It is the role of the readers to ensure that the employees can live in harmony despite the differences that are present.

Motivational theory

Employee motivation is crucial in the process of establishing teamwork in an organization. It is through motivation that the behavior and attitude of the employees can be changed to become positive hence creating a good working environment that promotes interactions among the employees (Fan and Yen, 2004). Lack of motivation can challenge the process of establishing teams in an organization as employees might lack morale necessary for increasing interactions needed in the process of enhancing relations among the employees. According to motivational theory, organizations can ensure that the employees are motivated by ensuring that their interests are met. Some of the employees’ interests can include good working terms and conditions. Failing to meet these interests can result in a lack of morale that can negatively affect the teamwork spirit among the employees (Layman, et al. 2006). Motivation is necessary for ensuring that social relation among the employees are enhanced as motivated employees show commitment to ensure that they relate well with the other employees. Through the creation of a healthy working environment, the social environment is enhanced making the employee relations better hence contributing improved teamwork.

Theory X and Y

The two theories do affect the establishment team process through affecting the behavior of the employees. Theory Y ensures engagement the employees in the various operations of the organization. As a result, it affects the behavior of the employees positively where the necessary environment for social interactions among the employees and the management is provided. The managers using theory Y of management do trust the employees to work independently to deliver the required results. Therefore, such managers using this theory know the contributions of teamwork in the process of ensuring that the employees are in a position to work together (Kliem, 2004). Through theory Y, teamwork spirit among the employees is enhanced as the management is aware of the benefits of ensuring that the employees can be in a position to improve their productivity. For instance, teamwork is considered necessary as the employees need to share ideas in the process of discharging their duties.

Theory X does not encourage increased interactions of the employees; thus, affecting the social interactions among the employees. The managers using they theory do not trust the employees to work independently as they think that the employees need supervision to do what is required. As a result, they do not provide a working environment that can assist in the development of teamwork (Ellis and Phelps, 2000). The employees are not motivated where they do not have the necessary commitment to work together to achieve the set objectives of the organization.

Concepts in establishing teamwork

Sociotechnical concept:

According to this concept, establishing a working environment that promotes interactions among the employees is important in building a team. Such working environment promotes teamwork spirit where the employees are motivated to work together for a common goal. The managers can ensure that the workplace can promote teamwork by ensuring that the employees freely interact with each other (Bligh, Pearce, and Kohles, 2006). Besides, ensuring that the employees have respect for each other despite the differences that might exist is crucial in developing teamwork.

Ecological concept:

This concept does assess the effects of working environment on teamwork spirit. The environment in which the employees work is crucial in determining the social interactions among the workers. The social atmosphere can be affected by the cultural differences, beliefs, values and the differences in experiences (Chen and Sycara, 2008). Lack of understanding and acknowledging the differences existing among the employees can result in difficulties in the process of establishing teams in organizations. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure that the differences existing among the employees are properly managed.

Human Resources concept:

The way the capabilities and the talents of workers are exploited in an organization do determine teamwork development. This is because through the development of the capabilities of the employees the social interactions among the employees are promoted.

Technological concept:

This concept tries to assess how an organization keeps pace with the changes in technology advancements. Organizations that do employ the use of technological advancements in their operations are likely to face difficulties in establishing teams (Entin and Serfaty, 2000). The difficulties in establishing teams can be associated with the increased use of machines that discourages social interactions.

Conclusion

Based on the concepts, theories, and literature that has been reviewed, it is clear that organizations do face some difficulties in the process of establishing teams. The difficulties can be related to the differences that do exist among the employees where the differences can be concerning experiences, cultural orientation, beliefs or values (Christoffersen and Woods, 2004). The organizations that do fail to ensure that the necessary strategies are in place to manage the diversity in the workforce are likely to face challenges in the process of developing team spirit among the employees. The strategies for managing the differences among the employees can involve making them recognize and have respect for the differences that might be existing.

References

Bligh, M.C., Pearce, C.L. and Kohles, J.C., 2006. The importance of self-and shared leadership in team based knowledge work: A meso-level model of leadership dynamics. Journal of managerial Psychology21(4), pp.296-318.

Burgoon, L. Stern, and L. Dillman, 2001. Interpersonal Adaptation: Dyadic Interaction Patterns. Cambridge University Press.

Burstein and D. Diller, 2004. A framework for dynamic information flow in mixed initiative human/agent organizations. Applied Intelligence, 20(3).

Cannon, E. Salas, and S. Converse, 2003. Shared mental models in expert team decision making. In J. Castellan, editor, Individual and group decision making. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Chen and K. Sycara, 2008. Webmate: a personal agent for browsing and searching. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Autonomous Agents.

Christoffersen and D. Woods, 2004. How to make automated systems team players. Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research.

Ellis, A. and Phelps, R., 2000. Staff development for online delivery: A collaborative, team based action learning model. Australian Journal of Educational Technology16(1), pp.26-44.

Entin and D. Serfaty, 2000. Adaptive team coordination. Human Factors, 41,

Fan and J. Yen, 2004. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents. J. of Physics of Life Reviews, 1(3).

Kliem, R., 2004. Managing the risks of offshore IT development projects.Information Systems Management21(3), pp.22-27.

Langan‐Fox, J., Anglim, J. and Wilson, J.R., 2004. Mental models, team mental models, and performance: Process, development, and future directions. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries14(4), pp.331-352.

Layman, L., Williams, L., Damian, D. and Bures, H., 2006. Essential communication practices for Extreme Programming in a global software development team. Information and software technology48(9), pp.781-794.

Martin, R.C., 2003. Agile software development: principles, patterns, and practices. Prentice Hall PTR.

McDonough, E.F., Kahnb, K.B. and Barczaka, G., 2001. An investigation of the use of global, virtual, and colocated new product development teams.Journal of product innovation management18(2), pp.110-120.

Mohrman, S.A., Cohen, S.G. and Morhman Jr, A.M., 2005. Designing team-based organizations: New forms for knowledge work. Jossey-Bass.