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International Human Resource Management ‘Individual research and critical analysis’ Essay Example

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Job Quality at International Human Resource Management 3


Student’s Name:

Student’s ID:

Location of Institution:

  1. Angela Knox

  2. Chris Warhurst

  3. Dennis Nickson

  4. Eli Dutton

Year of publication: 2015

Volume, Issue, Pages:
26:12, 1547-1567

The title of Article:
using hotel room attendants to improve understanding of job quality

The title of Journal Publication: The International Journal of Human Resource Management



Human resource management is one of the most critical determiners of the performance of any department. The sector concerned is responsible for supervising recruitment, selection, training, employee benefits as well as performance evaluation and rewarding based on the system and policies of the company. Job quality has been one of the major issues of discussion among various researchers (Handel 2005, pp.66-94). Some view this issue broadly in an objective and subjective dimensions. Based on these dimensions a contradiction appears on the perception of job quality for housekeepers. The paper seeks elaborate how housekeeping, an example of human resource sector in the hotel industry is used to portray job quality at international level.

Job quality concept is poorly recognizable by many theorists for none of them states the exact understanding. There are four types of employees according to the researcher who becomes categorized as being transient or trapped in their duties based on the subjective dimension. They include seekers, managers, immigrants and the locals. Seekers and managers are temporary workers who move from place to place for job activities (Baum 2007, pp.1383-1399). They do not live in a single location entirely but search for new opportunities elsewhere. Managers’ aims at developing their careers hence have little or no leisure time. Job-Seekers on the other hand move in search for new experiences concerning leisure chance instead of work.

Locals and the immigrants are on the contrary trapped though the only difference is that the locals are not willing to work in the locality in which they were born but due to lack of opportunities they are forced to work in that area. Immigrants, however, are happy in the jobs they perform and they feel they are living their dreams despite their employment being the least in quality. Based on the real dimension, quality of the job type basis amount of pay. The dimension focuses on the characteristics of duties as either non-economic or economic which include timing, work closer, control and self-sufficient activities.

Job quality in domestic and international hotels is of great importance despite the perception they have over workers such housekeeper. They argue that with the little skills and low qualification pay should follow (Knox, Warhurst, Nickson and Dutton 2015, pp.1547-1567). The skills provided by the attendants include the ability to work rigidly, to pay attention to the information perceived, complying with the work rate and personality. With such little requirement, the hotels can only afford to pay a low wage. The global government have come up with a support of career quality importance and insist on creation of useful work, improving the existing jobs as well as encouraging human resource to carry out a decent task.

Data collection methods

Data collection involved the use of non-random design of case study where 30 staff members in the larger hotels in Australia and UK were interviews especially directors, room attendants and managers (Lincoln, Lynham and Guba 2011, pp.97-128). The study enabled easier questioning as per the issues involved concerning the understanding of job characteristic. According to the subjective indicator, the approach towards occupation activities of the employees determined the performance. The objective indicator, on the other hand, showed the job characteristic based on the skill, progress, pay, and organization of work.

The data collected from the managers included the turnover rates, absenteeism, performance qualification and productivity. The house attendants kept their jobs if they followed the required procedures and took their jobs positively. The unwilling members who had bad attitudes towards their job did not remain in it for their performance also deteriorated. Features revealed in the analysis about the owner, and the employee included life stage, employment option, qualifications, career and status that molded their attitudes.

Individuals involved in the research

The study involved three stakeholders who included the manager whose purpose was to provide their views concerning the performance of the person and the pay rate per work done. Housekeeper offered their opinion of the work they do base on objectives and subjective issues. Also, the director, employer, and trade union were part of the research. The diverse range of staffs provided a deeper comprehension of preference and features of job quality.


The data collected provide awareness of subjective and objective indicators of job quality.

Accurate dimension

In this aspect, job quality become recognized as per the subsections that include:

Organization of work

The attendants worked alone in most of the time performing their tasks for example bathroom cleaning, towel, coffee, and tea re-stocking, dusting and vacuuming as well as bed sheet changing. The room servicing tasks were routine though weekly duties included and the functions carried out thoroughly and faster.

Training and skills

There was little skills requirements since dusting and cleaning was a simple task as long as the housekeepers paid attention to information and maintained hygiene. Training based on the observation of duties performed by a skilled person. Only a few attendants were interested in the development of opportunities since few lacked the skill to cross them over to the next level.


Housekeeper pay was very little which affected their attention though few received enough to sustain life they became unsatisfied hence performed poorly. According to Bernhardt (ed.2008) discounts were benefits the attendants received which included food, uniforms, accommodation, and beverages.

Subjective dimension

The component focused on the willing and trapped which included attendants with low education, few job opportunities, mature family oriented, local or migrants whose objectives relate to their family (Warhurst 2009, pp.180-196). Willing and transient were of mix qualification which had opportunities and moved from area to area in search of better careers that are long-term. Unwilling and trapped have the minimal requirement, and their mid-life despite, their few chances for employment. Finally, unwilling and transient are the category of workers with little skills, have better opportunities, they are young and pleasured.


From the research job quality of attendants are bad according to factors such as wages, opportunity and training on the other hand personal perception of employment can vary to be right or wrong. The worker personality is the determiner of the long-term workability that shapes the employee’s skills and acceptance of the job type. According to the study, it is of great importance for the employer to realize the significance of each staff in the firm and acknowledge them through compensation and reward. Also offering training programs to improve workers capability is necessary.


Future research should determine how the quality of job categories affect the outcome. First, the researchers must show the significant link between the job class type and the effects. They should examine if the relationship is transparent and efficient. Second, the study should illustrate how the quality job type category impacts the results, whether directly or inversely or the interactive effects appear. Third, the research should demonstrate how managers react to challenges and improvement within each category so that to seek better control terms. Finally, strategy hiring should come into play to maximize the results of job quality.


Baum, T., 2007. Human resources in tourism: Still waiting for change. Tourism Management, 28(6), pp.1383-1399.

Bernhardt, A.D. ed., 2008. The gloves-off economy: Workplace standards at the bottom of America’s labor market. Cornell University Press.

Handel, M.J., 2005. Trends in perceived job quality, 1989 to 1998. Work and Occupations, 32(1), pp.66-94.

Knox, A., Warhurst, C., Nickson, D., and Dutton, E., 2015. More than a feeling: using hotel room attendants to improve understanding of job quality. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(12), pp.1547-1567.

Lincoln, Y.S., Lynham, S.A. and Guba, E.G., 2011. Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences revisited. The Sage handbook of qualitative research, 4, pp.97-128.

Warhurst, C., Hurrell, S.A., Gilbert, K., Nickson, D., Commander, J. and Calder, I., 2009. Just «mothers»? Role stretch and low pay amongst female classroom assistants. Work matters, pp.180-196.