INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL SECURITY 1

  • Category:
    Performing Arts
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    4
  • Words:
    2308

Is terrorism a serious threat to international and national security?

Is terrorism a serious threat to international and national security?

Terrorism is one of the components affecting international and national security. There is no denying the eventual threat of terrorism to the national and international security. Nevertheless, the scale of the threat of terrorism is on a lower scale than the governments, authorities, media outlets, and politicians believe. Categorically, most government entities across the world have focused on increasing their security through investing on research to prevent terrorist attacks. Moreover, it is appropriate for the government entities and relevant practitioners to continue to monitor and train the security officials rather than invest more resources on the national security. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the fact that terrorism is a threat to international and national security, but it is not as serious threat as the governments, politicians, and media want the society members to believe.

In the course of achieving this goal, it is ideal to focus on defining the concept of terrorism before understanding its implications on the national and international security. Firstly, the concept of terrorism tends to generate complications because of the ability of people to integrate diverse or different meanings to the concept. According to Bruce Hoffman, dealing with the concept of terrorism makes it inherently and fundamentally political. This is because the process deals with the acquisition, struggle, and utilization of power for various or several means.

In the definition of terrorism, Hoffman defines terrorism as the deliberate creation, as well as exploitation of fear through violence or threat of violence with the intention of achieving political change (Hoffman, 2006). In this context, Hoffman believes that the objective of terrorism is to achieve political change while using threat of violence or acts of violence in the contemporary society. On the other hand, Lutz sought to adopt and integrate a substantive breakdown to the concept of terrorism. In this context, Lutz sought to define terrorism as the approach to utilize threat or violence by an organized group in pursuit of the political objectives targeting audiences, particularly innocent civilians (Lutz, 2005). These expressions demonstrate the fact that it is impossible to define the act of terrorism effectively and efficiently. At one point, one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter, thus, little help or assistance in pursuit of a precise definition of terrorism within the context of the international and national security (Williams, 2004).

Terrorism tends to pose threat to the international and national peace and security. It is ineffective for each state to engage in isolation in addressing the challenges or implications, as well as threats emanating from terrorism. International bodies and entities have focused on the utilization co-operation for the international community to tackle the problem of terrorism, which transcends geographical borders in the modern society. The threat that chemical, nuclear, or biological materials might proliferate to the terrorists continues to grow as a concern to the international community (Brooks, 2011). In the case of Bangladesh, terrorism tends to come out as a serious threat to the national security.

The act of terrorism continues to be a threat to life, economy, and political sphere, as well as religious pluralism in the context of Bangladesh. Terrorism associates with incidents of the religious assassination, political violence, and suicide bombings, which play critical roles in stunning diverse nations, thus, enormous implications on the international and national security. Various practitioners believe that the entire humanity is standing at crossroads because of the tendency to fight terrorism in various forms (Combs, 2006). In this context, various nations aim at supporting global war or international fight against terrorism.

Government entities focus on establishing the sense of security among the citizens through diverse approaches. One of the approaches by the national and international entities in curbing terrorism is through integration of the relevant equipment resulting from increased investment in techniques (Copeland, 2001). These approaches are critical in identifying potential terrorist attacks with the objective of limiting or minimizing implications of the terror attacks. Additionally, media practitioners or outlets play critical roles in the course of addressing the issue of terrorism, thus, the platform to create agenda among the target audiences (Snow and Taylor, 2006).

In this context, government entities and practitioners tend to play valuable roles in the utilization of the media practitioners and outlets in the course of shaping the perceptions of the citizens regarding the need for protection and increased investment in the war against terrorism. Moreover, terrorism tends to have enormous effects on the society. In the first instance, terrorism aims at realizing political goals and objectives using threats of violence or acts of violence against the innocent civilians (Wolfendale, 2006). In such instances, terrorism creates bad blood among nations, thus, enormous implications on the development and implementation of the security or foreign policies. Furthermore, terrorism leads to destruction of property and deterioration of the economy (Richardson, 2006). Similarly, terrorism leads to enormous loss of lives such as the case of the 9/11 attacks on the United States soil. These aspects are critical in understanding the influence or effect of terrorism on the national and international security. Nevertheless, there is still a question as to whether the presentation of terrorism as a serious threat to the international and national security is valid as it seems to appear in the modern context (Martin, 2008).

In spite of the above presentation, it is critical to demonstrate the fact that numerous or various governments tend to blowout the scale at which acts of terrorism occur or exist within the society. In such instances, the government entities aim at justifying to the citizens the reasons as to why more money, as well as resources should go into security rather than achievement of the growth and development of the nation in question (Pape, 2005). In the recent years, there has been substantive money spent on the physical security, agencies, counterterrorism policies, and approaches towards dealing with the foreign sources of terror. The financial resources form the portion, which the government will reluctantly spend on the improvement of the wellbeing of the citizens in the nations of focus (Lutz & Lutz, 2009). The government practitioners focus on executing diverse practices with the intention of combating terrorism to the extent that more resources evade other types of investments, as well as expenditure. According to Gray (2006), it is ideal for the government entities and practitioners to engage in treating terrorists as criminals. This is because of the potentiality of the conflict to reflect respective legitimacy of the two sides within the society.

Research tends to demonstrate the fact that there are diverse threats to the national and international security, which might be more serious that aspects of terrorism. In the context of the United States, some of the greatest causes of death among the society members include accidents, poisoning, unintentional falls, suicides, and homicides among others. These causes of death do result into more cases or incidences of death in comparison to outcomes of terror attacks. Base on the existing data, it is safe to demonstrate or highlight the fact that other threats in the aforementioned statements tend to have enormous implications on the lives of the people in comparison to the acts of terrorism.

In the recent years, people are beginning to feel and experience suppression, marginalization, and complete isolation by the government, thus, increase in the outbursts and crimes targeting the privileged society members. Inappropriate or ineffective government policies and practices are making people to become more violent (Pettiford and Harding, 2003). Categorically, governments focus on using resources, which would be vital for education, infrastructure, and development of the economy, to offer or generate high tech equipment with the intention of protecting the society against terrorism. From this perspective, hospitals, as well as healthcare facilities, schools, employment opportunities, and roads join the back burner, thus, little allocation for the realization of innovation and maintenance for the quality services for the people.

In this context, Pettiford & Harding (2003) highlights the approach of deliberate killing of innocent civilians, thus, exposing confusions from the political justifications of the act of terrorism. It is ideal for the government entities to engage in the assessment of the reasons for the high numbers of accidents through consistent review of the safety measures and speed limits, as well as integrating more speed cameras, as well as police patrols on the highway routes. The same should apply to education in which learning schools should incorporate weapon detection machinery and subjecting teachers and students to the regular checks with the intention of preventing insider terror attacks.

On the other hand, the health sector should incorporate substantive testing equipment with the objective of providing or offering top-notch services. These techniques are ideal in the minimization of death resulting from inadequate resources at such institutions. Additionally, there should be healthy investments into infrastructure and job creation incentives in which people would feel relevant to the society, thus, less time to engage in the criminal and violent activities (Wilkinson, 1997). These practices will be vital in the realization of proper allocation of the resources aiming at bringing about balance and growth in the economy. The society members will have ideal understanding of the concept of terrorism and other possible security threats (Kegley, 2003). In such instances, people would aim at working together with the intention of enhancing their awareness of the things taking place within the community, thus, the platform to react in the midst of such attacks.

In the modern society, the media plays a critical role in thriving on drama, as well as desire to improve the ratings in the course of making profits and revenues at the end of each fiscal period. Categorically, media outlets seek to regale the audience through exaggerating stories of attacks, as well as possible attacks with the objective of distorting judgment and imaginations, thus, the need to rely on the government for protection and fearful for their own existence (Levitt, 2006). It is impossible to predict and cater for the natural disaster rather than 100 percent predicting probability of the terrorist attack occurring. In most cases, news stories of terrorists’ events are seldom outright fabrications, which undergo alteration with the intention of including selected elements with the support of the government interests.

Critically, journalists tend to become targets of the terrorist activities, thus, constant threats for the expression of opinions against the terrorist goals. For instance, the exclusive coverage of the 9/11 attacks did offer the world substantive insight into the essence and extent of terrorism. From this approach, the implication of the media tends to depend on the reports from the public, which might preempt substantive attention. Realistically, various factors come into play when reporting the terrorist events such as the efforts by the government to mislead the public through disseminating information while utilizing domestic propaganda (Kydd & Walter, 2006). It is the obligation or responsibility of the media practitioners inform the public on the potential and actual terrorist attacks, thus, ensuring the security of the lives and property within the society. The potentiality to regulate the media practitioners by internal or external authority will not change the thinking pattern of the terrorists and likewise organizations. This makes the relationship between terrorism and media to be broad, as well as complex.

Conclusively, it is safe to highlight that terrorism is a threat, but not on the scale at which it comes out by the perceptions of the politicians, governments, and media practitioners or outlets. It is ideal for the government to enhance the safety or security of the citizens and property. This is through securing and equipping public places such as train stations, seaports, airports, and borders with the right equipment. Additionally, it is critical for the governments to consider focusing on the construction or building of the economy while demonstrating increased understanding or awareness of the security threats within the national and international contexts. It is crucial for the private and public sector companies to adopt and implement valuable and necessary infrastructure to facilitate ideal protection against threats. There is potentiality of confusion on the serious threat of terrorism within states in the midst of increased globalization because of lack of quick solutions regarding political, social, and economic issues affecting the lives of the society members.

References

Brooks, R. A. (2011). Muslim “home-grown” terrorism in the United States: how serious is the threat? International Security, 36(2), 7-47.

Combs, C. 2006 Terrorism in the Twenty First Century, New York, Prentice Hall.

Copeland, T. (2001). Is the» New Terrorism» Really New?: An Analysis of the New Paradigm for Terrorism. Journal of Conflict Studies, 21(2).

Hoffman, B. (2006) Inside Terrorism. (Rev.ed). New York: Columbia University Press

Kegley, C. 2003 The New Global Terrorism: Characteristics, Causes and Controls, London, Pearson.

Kydd, A. H., & Walter, B. F. (2006). The strategies of terrorism. International Security, 31(1), 49-80.

Levitt, M. 2006 Hamas: Politics and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad, New Haven, yale University Press.

Lutz, J and Lutz, B (2009) ‘How Successful is terrorism?’ Forum on Public Security, available at http://forumonpublicpolicy.com

Lutz, J. and Lutz, B. (2005) Terrorism: Origins and Evolutions. New York: Palgrave

Martin, G. 2008 Essentials of Terrorism Concepts and Controversies New York, Columbia University Press.

Pape, R. 2005, Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, New York, Random House.

Pettiford, L and Harding, D (2003) Terrorism: The New World War. London: Arcturus

Richardson, L. 2006 What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Terrorist Threat, London, John Murray.

Snow, N., and Taylor, P. (2006) ‘The Revival of the Propaganda State’, the International Communications Gazette, 68(5-6):389-407

Wilkinson, P. (1997), “The Media and Terrorism: A Reassessment,” Terrorism and Political Violence, 9(2):51-64

Williams, C. 2004, Terrorism Explained, Sydney, New Holland.

Wolfendale, J. (2006), “Terrorism, security, and the threat of counterterrorism,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29(7), 753-770.