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Interim Report 7



Sustainability Measurement and Impact on Industry

Chapter 1


century. Apparently, governments and societies throughout the world face considerable economic, political and social challenges. Consequently, the afore mentioned challenges result from a number of factors include but not limited to pollution, limited resources, global warming, and threats to the ecosystem due to exposure to industrial waste, among other factors. Essentially, a lot of these challenges have arisen partly due to human ambition to do and explore more, and to push boundaries beyond our current capabilities. However, many of our actions in these pursuits have seriously damaged the environment in which we live throwing us into questioning the long-term sustainability of the planet. As such, to prevent the elimination of human beings and the destruction of the earth, it is important that humans address outstanding concerns about the ways in which our actions damage the environment and that we develop new business, industrial and domestic practices that can be sustainable over a long-term basis. Essentially, life and business sustainability is entailed on the acts of incorporating sustainable objectives of human development such as equity, economic efficiency and environmental performance (Labuschance et al, 2015). As a result, human practices of exploring and finding new opportunities of survival need not to interfere with the normal environmental atmosphere. The repercussions of environmental depletion are severe and pose a threat to human survival. thThe modern world today that we live in is very different from the earlier world of the 20

1.2 Problem Statement

The past decade has seen an increased pressure to help expand the accountabilities of human survival, establishment of proper companies that can cope with modern technological advancement to enhance a competitive business environment (Labuschance et al, 2015). These practices have however gone beyond environmental sustainability. Precisely, limited resources, pollution, global warming, threats to the ecosystem and exposure to potentially dangerous chemicals and radiation are all real issues that have a significant impact on people’s lives in the modern world (Weisbrod & Simmonds, 2015). Consequently, many of these challenges are the direct result of human ambition to enhance industrialization in the modern world. As such this research aims at explaining the metrics assessment that industries use in economics, social, and environmental circumstances.

1.2Objectives of this study

This research project based on the following objectives to help explain the metrics assessment that affect economic, social and environmental aspects considering the present day rapid industrialization.

  1. To identify and explore a set of measures that can be effectively employed to address the social, economic and environmental challenges that affect human population globally.

  2. . To examine some of the metrics that can be employed to address and manage economic, social and environmental challenges based on modern industrialization.

  3. To explore various sustainable practices that can help to curb rapid modern environmental depletion that causes health complications to human species globally.

  4. To determine the importance of placing an emphasis on industrial symbiosis to improve sustainability of manufacturing in the modern world.

  5. To evaluate the impact of modern industrialization and human activities to environmental conservation.

Chapter 2

2.1 Literature Review

arose due to concerns about environmental conservations. It is a relatively new principle in the context of universal conservation since its creation. As such, the name sustainability is frequently used in contemporary community to illustrate the overall economic well-being of worldwide population in terms of the environment that we create and support and the long-term success of the citizens who inhabit it (Bell & Morse, 2008). Essentially, the fundamental notion of sustainability is the development of practices and processes that meet the needs of society in the contemporary context without compromising the quality and security of the life that will be available to future generations. sustainabilityDespite the fact that societies throughout the world have been aware of the significance of environmental conservation and establishing government regulations that protect the natural planet in which we live, the world remains under the risk of environmental massacre (Dalal-Clayton & Sadler, 2009). As such, it is critical that steps have to be taken to protect the environment before it is too late. Essentially, these steps need to be manageable, measurable and able to be monitored. In the today’s contemporary community, it is becoming increasingly evident that environmental conservation concerns are not the only cause of disturbances to the global community. Consequently, the name

. As a result, for these processes to be effective over long-term environmental conservation based on social and economic aspects, sustainable processes and practices need to take into consideration the three important dimensions: social, economical and environmental. equitable processes, while those that are designed to address economic concerns can be described as bearableToday, the concept of sustainability currently incorporates the four main factors outlined as follows. The first factor is economic advantages in terms of human survival. The second factor focuses on resources efficiency in terms of usage, social development is the third factor and the last factor involves environmental conservation (Bell & Morse, 2008). Initiatives that are proposed to address social and environmental concerns can be viewed as the

At present, around 25% of mammals and 25% of bird species globally are dependent of the risk of distinction (Hark et al., 2007). Almost 50% of the water supply system worldwide, including rivers and reservoirs are formally categorized as either contaminated or depleted. Additionally, almost 15% of the land that exists in this world is classified as degraded. Alongside this, the estimated number of deaths all over the world has been steadily rising over recent years and an estimated 10 million people die every year. The deaths are mostly caused by very bad sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and lack of health education (Stanners et al., 2007). Precisely, an extra 10% of the world is population lives under the scarcity line, and around 40% of humans have limited approach to secure drinking water. As a result, the concentration of carbon IV oxide has risen by more than 25% in recent years comparing to the levels presented 50 years ago. The ozone is being steadily depleted as a result of the constant emission of chlorofluorocarbon from the factories and production facilities that are operated by chemical, manufacturing and petroleum firms (Stanners et al., 2007).

Apparently, there has been a significance rise in relation to the level of awareness that relates to the importance of sustainability over the past few decades. The most important and essential players in the context of sustainability initiatives are academics, industrial players, and the governments around the world. According to a report published by the United Nations Environment Program in 2002, a number of key concerns have driven the need for the development of sustainable practices (Stanners et al., 2007). The extension of sustainability can be understood in relation of the economic, environmental, and social actions that need to be taken and how these should be employed in a viable, equitable, bearable and sustainable manner.

One major source of pollution is the chemical industry and even though major players in this segment have laid solid programs that define how they will become more sustainable, there are a number of outstanding issues that have yet to be resolved. One area in which chemical processing companies stand accused of not taking appropriate action is in their failure to substitute manufacturing methods and processes that have a negative impact on the environment with more sustainable approaches where necessary. The oil industry is one of the most important sectors of the world’s economy. It provides almost 90% of the energy required to fulfill businesses and private demands (Bell & Morse, 2008). As such, many industries are extremely reliant on oil products. In light of this, it is crucial to discover ways of enhancing sustainability at the same time be focus on the challenges that are associated with the conservation of the world is oil resources over a long-term basis. Considering that oil is a non-renewable resource, it is fundamental that methods of conserving and optimizing the reserves are identified and implemented. For several years, departments of environmental conservation have made many attempts to control the environmental effects that results from the exploitation of fossil fuels. However, the extent to which these have been successful has not been formally described.

2.2 Analyze of the Literature

Introducing a brand-new product in a specific industry consists of series of steps and events. These involve the discovery of the chemicals to be used, formulation of the products, development of the processes to be utilized to manufacture the product and then full-scale production. Of these, the development of the manufacturing process is of significance when attempting to create and implement manufacturing procedures that are sustainable. During this phase, a set of steps must be taken. Those involve market research, requirements of the product, initial stage of development, and final stage of the product development together the design, along with the product registration (Stanners et al. 2007). The major and relevant concern that the engineers should attempt to resolve at this stage is methods of incorporating sustainability into the process by which a product is produced. Even though this may seem simple, in practice it is highly complex. The design process can be multifaceted and engineers have to deal with many practical details while also taking into concern the predicted income, government rules, and community considerations in relation to a possible detrimental outcome that a production of a brand-new product may bring.

Measuring an extent to which a process, product or reserve is sustainable involves developing a quantitative foundation for informed sustainability management. There is an ongoing improvements implicated in the metrics used for the sustainability evaluation, which consists of a variety of domains, the sustainable environmental domain, together with social and economic domains. They all reflect as a combination with each other and at separate levels (Bell & Morse, 2008). The metrics practiced for sustainability measurement involves benchmarks, audits, assessment, indices and accounting together with other ways of reporting. Those metrics are adjusted over a large area of scales, which are considered temporal in nature as well as geographical (Stanners et al., 2007). Part of the popular and broadly used method of measure used in sustainability involves the corporate report on sustainability, assessments of the governance of sustainability equality for particular nations by applying the environmental sustainability and environmental performance index. United Nations on the Global Compact benefits of Circles Sustainability as a different form to approach and specifically come up with critical analysis about sustainability.

esponses, like policy regulation indicators for the sustainability may be brought in the progress (Weisbrod & Simmonds, 2015).Rmpacts of different nature. At this point in time, society’s Itate, which later brings SThe most important target of sustainability indicators is to maintain policy makers who are linked with the governance informed about the development of the sustainability operations. Also these indicators can be used as way of gathering information when the interaction between the socio-economic and environmental activities is made. A number of important questions should be considered. To start with, “What is happening?” which contributes to exploring detailed indicators. Followed by, “Does it matter? And is it possible to reach the targets?” That contributes to analyze where the efficiency are. And, for the final question, which usually explores the overall welfare indicator, is “Are we better off?’ (Bell & Morse, 2008). The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development system, DPSIR, uses a slightly different version of framework from the European Environment Agency. This framework supports to break down potential environmental impacts into up to five different phases. Those consist of economic and social development, particularly consumption and production, which leads to drive to, starts the pressures in our environment. That will consequently issue the changes inside the environmental

Industrial symbiosis is a created mechanism of sharing services, by-product relevant resources, and utilities among various industries with the ambition of adding value, decreasing damages and fixing the environment (Agarwal & Strachan, 2006)

Industrial ecology is however considered as a part of industrial symbiosis where a particular attention is made towards the network of materials and energy. However, it is necessary to understand that industrial ecology is a brand new area established on natural standard. This area of study calls that the environment of an industry should perform on the same way of the natural ecosystem in which everything within the framework is recycled.

One of the most important approaches in which the industrial symbiosis over the ecology of industry supports to the development of strategies that allow economic growth to take place alongside the conservation of the environment is through the improvement of eco-industry (Ehrenfeld & Gertler, 2007).

There are a number of examples of industrial symbiosis within the industrial ecosystem context. Some of the most notable of these are industrial symbiosis, including eco-industrial network, Brownfield Eco-Industrial Development, Virtual Eco-Industrial Network, Green Twinning, and Greenfield Eco-Industrial Development, between others. The above categorizations tend to ignore a wide sector approach and concentrate more on appreciating the diversity of the industrial system, which is the main characteristic of industrial symbiosis (Agarwal & Strachan, 2006). The most important goal in this context is to come with the best initiatives, which focus on the performance of distribution the utility and performing symbiosis in the different sectors of various industries.

Industrial symbiosis does not restrict its application to the barriers of economic sectors or geographical barriers. Rather, it embraces diversity and openness alone, industrial symbiosis portrays a particular approach to the improvement of eco-industry (Ehrenfeld & Gertler, 2007).

Industrial symbiosis intentions are to put together industries that are generally separated from each other in order to develop a common approach that aims to attain the benefits that are considered in physical exchange of resources, being materials, by-products, energy and water some examples.(Agarwal & Strachan, 2006). The most important feature to perform industrial symbiosis relies on the support and potentiality of achieving the synergies arranged by geographic proximity. In this context, another critical platform is the sharing of information among the main players in the industrial sectors. Using information and best-practice approaches with others can clarify the geographical analysis that is implicated in determining international economic advantages.

Industrial symbiosis is a system that contributes for mutual optimization of materials and energy in order to achieve efficiencies beyond those that are achievable by the processes related to individual industrial processes alone. International systems, which involve networks of materials and the exchange of energy and materials among companies, especially in Denmark, have suddenly evolved from a series of minor innovations over a long-time basis. However, the design and application of such systems in the context of macro planning has proven to be somewhat challenging. Industrial symbiosis has been utilized in some natural and regional initiatives to some degree of success, especially in Europe (Agarwal & Strachan, 2006). However, in many cases, access to material about the availability of by-products is currently missing. Many industries consider these by-products as waste because the sector does not have access to their production. These wastes may be discharged into the natural environment in the form of pollution. Industrial symbiosis is the system that helps industries from different sectors rely upon each other in means of the exchange of services and other resources such as materials, these considered by-products in order to avoid waste inside the industrial ecosystem.

Chapter 3

3.1 Research Methodology

The procedures and schemes that shall be used for this research shall focus on historical research method. Consequently, reviewing of secondary environmental articles in relation to social and economic aspects that have been published by various environmental organs such as United Nation Environmental Program (UNEP) shall be used. The journals and articles shall either accessed online or from the libraries and be analyzed for data interpretation (Rajasekar, 2015). Additionally, other previous research and studies that have been done on the metrics of environmental conservation in based on social and economic perspectives of human beings around the world shall be used. As such, the researcher shall collect appropriate journals, publications and previous research studies to help them record the needed data for easy interpretation and analysis.

3.2 Research Design

This research aims to examine the importance of industrial symbiosis and its effects on the environment and human heath in more depth. As such, secondary data sources such as environmental monographs, environmental journals based on recent environmental data analysis and global articles written about environment in various parts of the world shall be used in data collection, analysis and interpretation (Stewart & Kamins, 2013). Essentially, the secondary sources shall provide considerable information about different environmental aspects in many countries hence creating a wide spectrum of data analysis.

3.3 Source of data

This study shall use only secondary sources of data. Consequently, the researcher shall make use of environmental journals, public reports from the United Nations Environmental Program, online articles based on environmental conservation and effects of environmental depletion and other different publications to develop a theoretical understanding of industrial symbiosis. Secondary sources of data shall be significantly, useful to the research since they shall help the researcher to make wide consultations with the existing data about the environment (Stewart & Kamins, 2013).

Chapter 4

4.1Project Plan





Material Acquisition

Design and Implement


Data presentation

Final Report

antt chartinterim report G

Researchinterim report  1

Proposalinterim report  2

Presentationinterim report  3

Material Acquisitioninterim report  4

Design and Implementation interim report  5

Methodologyinterim report  6

Data Presentationinterim report  7

Final Reportinterim report  8

interim report  9

Time (days)

Chapter 5

Summary of findings5.1

century as compared to the earlier times. This is as a result of industrial gas emission that causes steady depletion of the ozone layer leading to global warming (Labuschance et al, 2015). The reviewed data from the secondary sources showed that the present day human beings are only focused on gaining economic and social stability but are less concerned about environmental conservation. Essentially, the environment supports all of the global creatures. This means that the present day creatures are placed under a bad threat since their lives are not sustained (Labuschance et al, 2015). Water bodies are being depleted due to man’s effort of extending urbanization hence cutting down trees which are a fundamental organ in the ecosystem. The research reveals that mammals, reptiles, birds and other global creatures are at a higher risk of dying due to environmental pollution. thThe metrics assessment that industries use in economic, social and economic circumstances are not based on the environmental conservation standards. As such, in the modern world environmental conservation has been overlooked and less concern is done on this phenomenon (Labuschance et al, 2015). Evidently, modern human beings are focused on daily manufacture of confiscated modern equipment forgetting the environmental impacts that this process cause. The level of pollution has greatly rises in the 20

Apparently, introduction of brand new industries in the modern world in order to gain economic stability and maintain social status quo without taking care of environment conservation leads to a negative output. As such, governments in the modern world need to put a lot of emphases on environmental conservation. From the collected data, a good environment ensures steady economic growth and assurance of continuity of human life without the effects of environmentally caused dieses such as skin cancer that result from global warming (Labuschance et al, 2015). Industrial symbiosis was found to be the viable method that industries can employ in order to help conserve environment and avoid depletion of fundamental resources such as water. Modern industries need to use environmental friendly manufacturing methods to avoid environmental pollution (Weisbrod & Simmonds, 2015

5.2 Conclusion

Conclusively, the society of the contemporary world faces different challenges that relate to health, industrial processing, environmental and socio-economic factors. Evidently, modern manufacturing industries make a significant contribution to environmental pollution and degradation (Labuschance et al, 2015). However, the present society is hugely dependent on the products produced by these modern technological industries. The two main global environmental pollution activities include, manufacturing industry that use petroleum and the impact that processing activities have on water supplies. As such, many manufacturing organizations are highly dependent on petroleum for their continuous operation. However, this energy resource is non-renewable and may one day become completely extinct if the right steps are not seized (Weisbrod & Simmonds, 2015). Water is one of the main crucial resources in terms of biodiversity and also in terms of industrial processing. On the other hand, industrial water resources are being contaminated at a high rate by the chemicals released from the industries. As a result, there is need to develop sustainable practices that protect and safeguard our water supplies since almost every species in the world is water dependant (Weisbrod & Simmonds, 2015.

It is globally accepted that sustainable manufacturing processes need to be identified, implemented and monitored. Consequently, industrial symbiosis represents one means by which major players can reduce the impact their operations have on the environment. Through sharing resources and utilities, firms can reduce their footprint and streamline operations (Weisbrod & Simmonds, 2015). This research explored the importance of symbiosis as an environmentally friendly means of industrial production compared to the modern means. The government of major players in environmental pollution need to embrace symbiosis in production since it shall help conserve the entire environment. Depletion of water and petroleum products which serve as a pivotal source of human survival leads to the begging of human population extinction. As a result, proper means of production in industries such as use of symbiosis need to be used across the globe to ensure survival of these two essential aspects (Weisbrod & Simmonds, 2015). Any future research to be done has to base on the importance of using symbiosis in manufacturing as compared to present day means of industrial manufacture.

Recommendations 5.3

In order to ensure economic, social and environmental stability, the modern world needs to embrace symbiosis as a means of manufacturing in the industries. Recycling of products such as water and petroleum has to be taken in place since the present day practices shall lead to their depletion. From the data collected basing on the earlier published environmental journals, case studies and research done by various scholars, it is clearly shown that environmental hosts the live of all creatures. Consequently, its conservation has to be given the first priority by all the states in the world. Due to rampant population growth, completion for economic and social stability is enforced. The modern human being is more concerned with gaining economic stability for survival. In this regard, industries need to share the little resources available for manufacture to ensure continuity of human race. Sharing shall lead to proper environmental conservation since there shall be less competition. Industries enhance global economic growth as such, they have to be operational. To ensure their continuous operations various global states governments have to put in place procedures and practices that shall be geared towards water conservation through recycling.


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