Injury Prevention in the School Aged Child Essay Example

  • Category:
    Nursing
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    4
  • Words:
    2356

Injuries are associated with the developmental milestones that a child is able to achieve. Injuries result in disabilities or even eventual loss of lives among child hence is a contributor to child mortality. During the first three months, babies are able to lie wherever they are placed and drink whatever they are given. Hence most injuries and accidents at this stage would be linked to actions for instance those sustained as a result of dropping from the bed, dropped by the care giver or they could also even end up chocking while being fed. Once the child begins to sit and to crawl, they will start to be exposed to various risks of developing injuries as a result of falls and putting dangerous things in their mouths, nose or ears. With the advent of the child being able to walk, they will no longer be confined to one place or location and hence the chances or likelihood of having injuries steadily increases during this period. At this stages , the children would tend to watch what other do and will imitate the same due to intense curiosity for instance they will tend to reach for objects such as knives and also swallow small objects and medicines. At the ages for about three years, these injuries would tend to decrease due to them becoming more skilled hence the accidents within the home would decrease and becoming adventurous they would go outside the compounds or households more often to find more play areas. Children will thus have greater risks of sustaining numerous injuries outside the home areas due to playing with dangerous objects such as sticks, knives and also end up eating unknown plants, fruits and flowers. They could also be exposed to other risks such as drowning or even road accidents at this adventurous stage (Victorian Government Dept of Human Services, 2001).

George (Greg’s Grandfather, and farther to Eunice)

Mildred (Greg’s Grandmother and father to Eunice)

Robert (Greg’s Grandfather and Bobbs father)

Isabelle (Greg’s Grandmother and mother to bob)

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Stan (Stela’s Husband)

Stela (Greg’s aunt and bobs sister)

Jeff (Greg’s uncle and bobs brother)

Bobb (Eunineces husband and father to Greg)

Eunice (Greg’s mother and Bobbs wife)

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Kieran (Greg’s brother)

Ross (Greg’s brother)

Britney (Greg’s nice and child to Stan and Stela)

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George (Greg’s nephew and child to Stan)

(Galindo, et al, 2009).

Injuries sustained by children can be classified basing on cause, location and activity. In children activity contributes to the majority of injuries with sports being at the top of this type of injuries. Classification based on cause in children would be mainly attributed to traumatic injuries would include injuries sustained from violence or accidents and other external physical causes such as burns. Classification of injuries based on location would be based on the anatomical position that the injury has occurred for instance head injuries, spinal cord injuries and soft tissue injuries (Lindqvist et al, 2002).

Most of the Injuries sustained by children result due to their age and also their inexperience hence they are unable of assessing the risks they face I their everyday life. Hence in the prevention of injuries in children, there is need for a multispectral approach towards the issue with parents, health workers, the community as well as the government all coming up with effective measures and actions in making sure that children are safe (Towner & Dowswell, 2002).

Strength of a family will entail possession of various traits within the family unit. These traits will enhance the cohesiveness and understanding within the family unit. The nine traits that promote family strength would include care and appreciation, spending time together, encouragement, commitment, communication, ability to cope with changes, spirituality, various community and family ties that exist, and the definition of various roles of the family clearly. Strengths of families vary depending on the composition or type of the family (Jamieson & Wallace, 2010).

The Donaldson family is a married nuclear family with both parents being biological. Both parents are employed , with the mother being a part time store administrator in a mall while the father being a long distance track driver who at most times spend time away from home. Most of the time, Eunice takes care of the family and does her house hold chores when she is not at the work place. Some of the traits that strengthen the family are over looked within the Donaldson family. The Donaldson family does not spend most of their time together due to the father being away for working reasons and this makes them to lack the presence of the figure head of the family who is the father. A strong family ought to spend more times together to enhance unity, understanding as well as cohesiveness. Communication too is not adequate within the family. For a strong family the communication should be adequate, precise and timely. The information should also be shared without concealment of any form of information. In Donaldson family however, this is not the case since the brother Ross knew very well that Greg is not using the helmet while undertaking the skating sessions of which both of them know is a risky practice. With a strong family , it would be expected that Ross could have instantly informed Eunice of Greg’s practice in order to prevent injuries from occurring since adequate interventions would have been undertaken to ensure that either Greg engages in skating while having the protective gear or is stopped from the skating sessions by the mother (Jamieson & Wallace, 2010).

Donaldson family has not yet taken full advantage of the various community and family ties that they have. Parents of Eunice who are the grandparents of her kids just live within the neighborhood , they should oftenly be involved in the activities of the family such as spending time with the Donaldson family as this would add value to the family. Bob’s sister and her husband as well lives in the neighborhood and could have also been providing the parental roles to the children in Donaldson family. Bobs sister also has children who interact with their cousins in the Donaldson family and this interaction could have facilitated positive values to be passed on or exchanged among the respective families. However this is not the case since the cousin, George goes with Greg to skate but cannot share the information that Greg is not using the protective gear while skating either to the aunt, Eunice nor the mother bobs sister for this could have facilitated alternative measures to manage this problem by the family. The interlinking and socialization between these networks would have resulted in a more united and stronger Donaldson family (Jamieson & Wallace, 2010).

Interventions to be used in the management of child injuries should have a multispectral approach and this will include the involvement of the family unit, community and the professionals such as the nurse in this case. Nursing interventions will be based on the on the strength of the family unit and the available competencies and resources at disposal to the family and the community. In this case, there will be need for the nurse to get to talk to Mildred on various mechanisms on how to prevent injuries in children since it is not Greg alone who is a child in that family (Klassen, et al, 2000).

The nurse will advice Mildred on Parental intervention would be done through enforcing the strength of the family. Strengthening of the family will be done by ensuring that the traits that promote a strong family are being promoted. In this case, there will be need to enhance communication among the family members to promote understanding for this will enable information concerning Greg and his risky skating activities to be relayed by the brother and cousin to be passed on so that Greg could be advised accordingly (Jamieson & Wallace, 2010). Advise will also be given by the nurse on how the family should spend time together .Spending time together among Donaldson family members should also be encouraged for this will create closeness among the family member. Spending of time together would ensure better understanding of various members as well as monitoring of the children by the parents will be enhanced and hence the children will be given directions in activities they undertake. Children will thus be able to engage in their daily activities with precautions for injuries already being put in place (Tuchman et al, 2003).

Various community and family ties that the family will be useful in the prevention of injury within the family set up. This should be used in strengthening the family since the association with the families will offer a blend of positive parenting to the children and also a watchful eye will be kept on the children so that they are advised accordingly on how to avoid various injuries and also go ahead to come up with measures that prevent the injuries from occurring (Kendrick et al, 2008).

Mildred will be advised on the need to putting place various strategies that will be aimed at preventing injuries. This will have to involve the environmental modifications within the home as well as the provision of safety devices and going ahead to educate the children on the importance of using protective devices which in this case would be the head gear and knee pads. Identification of various hazards within the home should also be done (Guldbrandsson & Bremberg, 2011). This will prevent other children from being injured too. The parents should also be able to monitor regularly the playing ground equipment that the children use. Adult supervision should be maintained until when they are able to develop the skating skills properly which did not happen in Donaldson family. In the environmental modifications, the area which skating is to be practiced by the children should have smooth surfaces for this will enable the prevention of injuries (Powell et al, 2000).

Supportive home visits will also enable the family to always adhere to the preventive measures towards injuries. The nurse should also be able to carry out home visits to assess the progress of the family in terms of the prevention of injuries. Supportive home visits will be aimed at advising the family on home safety and impacting behavioral changes as well as instituting the necessary environmental changes to reduce hazards present within the home area (European Child Safety Alliance, 2001).

Mildred will also be advised on the importance and conducting of various first aid procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of an accident. The nurse should be able to demonstrate the first aid procedures to Mildred. These procedures will also be passed on to the rest of the family members. First aid procedures will enable the prevention of poorer outcomes when accidents occurring and prevent injuries sustained from worsening. First aid procedures common in children will include those to be used after sustaining a fall like in the case of Greg, how to deal with burns, poisoning, chocking among others (World Health Organization, 2004).

Prevention strategies will also have to involve the kids being educated on the various skills to be employed in the prevention of injuries from occurring. Education of the children should focus on making the children appreciate the various prevention strategies put in place as well as being able to practice and observing the laid down preventive measures or guidelines. The children should also be encouraged to watch over one another and not go to places without informing the parents or care givers (Rivara et al, 2001).

In conclusion, prevention of injuries occurring will have to involve every member of the family, community as well as the professionals such as the nurses. The strength of the family unit will count a lot in the implementation of strategies that are aimed at preventing injuries from taking place. Within a family set up, injury has to involve every member of the family including the children who also are to be made to understand and appreciate the importance as well as the need of the various preventive strategies that have been put in place to prevent the occurrence of injuries within the community among children.

References

Victorian Government Dept of Human Services, (2001).Evidence-Based Health Promotion: No. 4 Child Injury Prevention. Melbourn, Retrieved from (www.dhs.vic.gov.au/phd/0103075 on the 18th August, 2011.

Towner E & Dowswell T., (2002). Community-based childhood injury prevention: what works? Health Promotion International, 17(3):273-284.

. Amsterdam, 2001.Priorities for child safety in the European Union: Agenda for ActionEuropean Child Safety Alliance, (2001).

Millward L et al, (2003). Prevention and reduction of accidental injury in children and older people, Evidence briefing, Health Development Agency, London.

Kendrick D., et al, (2008). Parenting interventions and the prevention of unintentional injuries in childhood: Systematic review and meta-analysis, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Rivara, F. et al (2001). Systematic Review of Childhood Injury Prevention Interventions, Harborview Injury Prevention Research Center, Washington, DC.

Lindqvist, K.,et al (2002). Evaluation of a child safety program based on WHO Safe Community model, Injury Prevention, 8, 23–26

Klassen, T. P.,et al , (2000). Community-based injury prevention interventions, The Future of Children, 10, 83–110

Guldbrandsson K. & Bremberg S., (2011).A study of safety-promoting activities for children and adolescents in 25 Swedish municipalities, Oxford University Press.

Cole K., (2000). Protecting Children from Unintentional Injuries, MU Extension Associate Sara Gable, MU Extension State Specialist, Human Development and Family Studies, 2000 University of Missouri –Columbia.

Galindo I., et al, (2009). A Family Genogram Workbook, Retrieved on 18th august 2011 from www.Amazon.com

Lisa Wallace, Human Development Specialist University of Missouri Extension,
Jamieson S. & Wallace L., (2010).Family strengths, Developed by Saralee Jamieson, Human Environmenta lsciences speecialist, and University of Missouri-Columbia.

Tuchman L. et al , (2003). Identifying family strengths, concerns, prlorltles & resources: Information for Early intervention Teams, The Wisconsin Personnel Development Project is coordinated through the Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Powell et al, (2000). Injury Prevention Education Using Pictorial Information, American Academy of Pediatrics,Illinois.

World Health Organization, (2004). How can injuries in children and older people be prevented? WHO Regional Office for Europe’s Health Evidence Network (HEN) , Copenhagen , Denmark.