INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND CLEANER PRODUCTION IN WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION
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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND CLEANER PRODUCTION IN WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND CLEANER PRODUCTION IN WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
5OBJECTIVES OF WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION
10CURRENT AND FUTURE INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY NEEDS
13EMERGING ISSUES ABOUT INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY
13ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND CLEANER PRODUCTION POLICY BY WTO
15STATUS REVIEW ON CLEANER PRODUCTION POLICIES BY THE WTO
15CLEANER PRODUCTION POLICIES AND IMPROVING RESOURCE UTILISATION
World Trade Organization was formed in the year 1995. The group was formed to create a fair trade between the nations world-wide. The organization has their headquarters located in Geneva, Switzerland. The group was created by members from both developed and developing countries where most of its members are the developing countries. The organization is comprising of 162 countries where only 30 countries are non-members ( Matsushita et al., 2015. N.p).
The group started with different aims, creating fair and transparent trade around the world. It is also working towards settling disputes that arise in trading activities among the countries. The disputes arise due to the disagreement that occurs during the buying and selling of goods and services among the countries or nations. They have strategized different means in which they settle disputes like using arbitration where they get in-between the fighting teams and solve the issues ( Matsushita et al., 2015. N.p).
The organization due to its formation has led to the creation of jobs. They have created employment in both their offices and outside their offices when they are networking to reach to their consumers and suppliers. In the offices of WTO, there are about 700 employees. The employment has improved the welfare and the living standard of the employees and their families ( Matsushita et al., 2015. N.p).
The organization has created a legal framework for business operations. They have negotiated with the member states, and they are licensed to operate in the 162 member countries. The legalization has benefited the group as they can easily export commodities freely from one country to the other. Similarly, they can import goods to the demanding countries without restriction. The organization has provided room for the citizens of the different member countries to trade with foreign countries where they purchase those goods that are inadequate in their country or in those countries that are poor in production (Elms et al., 2013. N.p).
The success of WTO is attributed to their effective use of information and technology. The use of information and technology has benefited the organization with effective decision-making, lead to effective management, enhance provision of product and services to the consumers and has enhanced the competitiveness of the organization in it’s market (Klemes et al., 2012. P.p 1-8).
The use of information and technology has been trusted with various functions due to their efficiency and convenience. The information and technology has the function of monitoring of operations in the organization, i.e., ., through use of CCTV’s in the offices, they are used for record keeping for the product flow across the globe, they are used for monitory calculations to evaluate the cost of production, profit and loss accounting and they are used for data processing to account for the goods and services offered to different countries (Elms et al., 2013. N.p).
The effective use of information technology is characterized by various things in the organization. There are the technical teams which have the responsibility of upgrading and updating the IT systems in the organization and ensure they are operating effectively. The organization also buy innovative ideas especially from the youths who are in the research centers to upgrade the IT systems; they also support the creativity of those individuals and youths who are studying and carrying research in the field if information and technology.
ORGANISATION CHARACTERISATION (Gagne, G., 2015. P.p 79-90).
World Trade Organization vision is to use their trade structures and practices to help the poor and improve a sustainable development and justice.
They have a mission of enabling their producers to improve their livelihoods and of the communities through fair trading.
OBJECTIVES OF WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION
The group has six main The tariff that they operate towards (Gagne, G., 2015. P.p 79-90);
They set and enforce rules for international trade. The rules act as the guiding principles in the operation and management of the business activities. The set rules and regulation ensure the trade activities are legalized, and that right activities are carried.
They provide room for observing and monitoring further trade liberalization. The liberalization trade help in ensuring the trade methods are free and available to all interested members. Liberalization of the trade increases good relation between the traders, buyers, and the sellers.
They resolve trade disputes. Different disputes arise during the carrying out of the trade activities. Disputes are either internal or external conflicts. The organization has an obligation of ensuring they solve the disputes that arise in the activities.
They are aimed at increasing the transparency of decision-making process within the organization. Transparency and justice in the trade activities have prevented malpractices like corruption in the trade activities, theft cases or brain draining.
They co-operate with other major international economic institutions around the world. The international institutions are the business schools which run towards learning and educating people on how to carry trade activities, how to ensure there is fair trade and show them the benefits of involving in trades and how to face business challenges (Klemes et al., 2012. P.p 1-8).
They assist the developing countries to benefit fully from the global trading system. Through the trade activities, the developing countries are benefiting from the high profits earned. The foreign incomes help the countries in developing their nations. The WTO also help this country through funding various projects that are running in the countries.
THE CAPABILITIES OF THE WTO AND ITS PLANS
The organization has helped the non-members to get involved in the trade activities of the WTO. The involvement of the non-members is done through marketing of the achievements and the advantages of working with the group. The marketing team also negotiate and convince the governments of the non-members countries to get on bound and be involved (Gagne, G., 2015. P.p 79-90).
WTO has also linked with other corporate bodies like WHO in maintaining the human health and welfare. WTO help in funding and providing technical support to the corporate bodies that involve them. The cohesion has led to easier control and improvements of the living standards of the human beings across the globe. The linking has also ensured there are limitations of this world groups through monitoring their activities. Human ethics are on the first line in controlling the group activities in their member countries (Klemes et al., 2012. P.p 1-8).
WTO has lead to great benefits for all the countries. The benefits are experienced both directly and indirectly. The direct benefits are like; raising people’s welfare and standard of living, reduction of the poverty level, exposure of the traders while the indirect benefits are through fostering of peace and stability of the involved countries, the peace occurs through the interaction of different members, the organization has also led to sustainable development to the member countries (Gagne, G., 2015. P.p 79-90).
WTO is made up of a hierarchy of structures. It has the highest authority been overall head of the organization, ministerial conference, general council, representatives of all WTO members. They meet after every two years for planning and strategizing management of the organization (Altbach, P., 2015. P.p 23).
A strategy is an organized and planned way of carrying out an operation while strategic management is the application of the laydown strategies in the management of an organization or company.
WTO use an integrative strategic management that involves every unit in the organization. The integrative strategies include, marketing strategy which plans the methods in which are to be implemented in the marketing and advertising the organization. There is the human resource strategy which aims at having an effective unit that manages the working personnel in the organization. There is the finance strategy that deals with the control of the monitory funds in the organization and the flow of cash. There are the production systems that deals with ensuring there is effective production in the organization and flow of goods to their consumers effectively (Altbach, P., 2015. P.p 23).
Technology base and the information systems have also assisted in the developing and implementing the proposed strategies in the organization. The IT provide the network that connects all the organization units and ensures that the strategies in each unit are linked.
The company involves different strategic analysis models. There is the competition analysis which involves ensuring that the company remains competent in the member countries. The competence of the organization lead to good relations with the member countries and will draw other non-members in the organization (Altbach, P., 2015. P.p 23). The competitiveness in the WTO has been portrayed through enough industrial structure, through establishment of several firms to distribute the organization goods and services, provision of the required capitals which is strategized during budgeting, through avoidance of the barriers to entry that could be hindering the running of the organization systems and through technology advancement and inclusion in their systems (Klemes et al., 2012. P.p 1-8).
There is also international strategies which are raised to ensure the company runs fairly between one nation with the other and between countries within the 162 members of WTO. Position strategy ensures that the organization is easily accessible to the interested people, and it enhances good interaction between the organization and their members who would require their assistance.
They use alliances as a strategy of bringing different countries together. The alliances have led to their break-through in Arab countries which are known for conflicts and frequent disagreements. The alliances ensure that the members involve themselves into the agreement of co-cooperation with the other countries. They also use joint ventures with different corporate groups. The joint ventures have strengthened the organization in its operation in the member countries (Altbach, P., 2015. P.p 23).
5-forces-model by Porter
The five forces by Porter are; the threat of substitution, the power of customer, power of supplier, industry competition and the threat of new competitors. The group is facing a challenge of being replaced by other competitive organization. The substitution would occur due to lack of competence by the organization and due to poor management strategies. The organization has raised an and reliable team that relies on during decision-making process and laying down strategies on running fair trade globally. They update their system and management of the organization to ensure it is in line with the changing technology and that they can adjust to the emerging trends in the market that can be used by their competitors (Altbach, P., 2015. P.p 23).
They value their customers who are portrayed through the complete involvement of customers in their operations. They involve customers while carrying out research, during the decision-making process and through listening to their customer’s response on goods and services they offer. The company also provide The minimizing which are inhabited by their customers that act as the motivation for the customers to continue working with them (Altbach, P., 2015. P.p 23)
The power of supply. Suppliers link the organization activities with the consumers. The supplies play an important role in ensuring the consumer’s taste and demand are met. The organization strengthens the suppliers power through purchasing their products at fair prices which motivate them. They ensure they have set policies that protect the suppliers from being exploited by the trade activities facilitated by the company. Remunerate the suppliers through recognizing them during annual meetings and through offering gifts and discounts to the suppliers (Altbach, P., 2015. P.p 23)
Industry power is the ability of the organization or company to withstand challenges it is facing in its operation and the ability of the company to meet their set goals and objectives. The ability to meet the requirements from their customers demand to strengthen the organization’s industrial power. They ensure they provide quality goods; goods are in the right quantity, and they ensure there is transparence in the delivery of their services.
WTO is also facing a threat from competitors. The threat is from other organizations aiming at providing goods and services to consumers at reduced cost and for the consumers rather than being business oriented. The competitors convince the member countries to operate with them due to the enormous benefits they will offer. WTO has set ways and means in which they remain competitive over the opponents. They provide high-quality products at fair prices which opponents cannot achieve. They also embrace the technology advancement so as to ensure quick and easier interaction with the member countries. WTO has ensured there is a good relation between the company and its suppliers, distributors and consumers. Thus, the good relation makes a strong bond that other competing organizations cannot break (Altbach, P., 2015. P.p 23)
CURRENT AND FUTURE INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY NEEDS
WTO are embracing the advancing information and technology. As a result, they came up with the plurilateral agreement which led to the current information and technology agreement (ITA). The current ITA’s hold that; there will be an expansion of the product coverage where there will be an inclusion of products that register, store, process, communicate, or provide information that uses the digital technology. The agreement also holds that there will be an establishment of a new system that will provide a common recognition of product-by-product. The agreement stills hold that there will be encompassment of services in computer and telecommunication services. They also agreed on the use of borderless competence in during operation of their services. The borderless competence is made possible through use computer networks which can operate different business activities at different and distance regions and monitors the operations to ensure there is the reliability of the services given (Gagne, G., 2015. P.p 79-90).
The plurilateral agreement also led to zero tariffs on information and technology related products. The zero tariff of the IT related products was aimed at benefiting both the member countries and the non-member countries. The benefit was a threat as some non-member countries were using the advantage and exploit the opportunities offered but they did not register as members of WTO. The tariff does not protect the organization from competition, but it diversified their margin and scope in the market.
The old IT was unfit to accommodate technological changes and advancements. The old technology was cumbersome when tracking the several goods traded and trying to locate the country of origin was difficult. The system could not support the use of different commands and run them at the same time to track different information (Gagne, G., 2015. P.p 79-90).
WTO has been using the 3-era model for the IT. The model involves; data processing, information systems management and strategic information systems. Data processing helps the WTO in improving operation efficiency through managing data that is flowing from their different branches around the world. They can manage the collected data and the added data; the IT stores the information for future use or reference. The strategic information systems help in planning how to deliver the relevant information to their firms and their consumers and the stakeholders.
LONG AND SHORT TERM ACTION PLANS
The modern technology has to start with the introduction of the monolithic integrated circuits, which was an advancement of the old technology. They also introduced computer parts and accessories to combat break down of computers during operation and to assist during wear and tear of the computers where the accessories are used. They introduced the use of the mobile phones in carrying out business transactions and communication services. The mobile phones since they were wireless hence, were portable improved the business operation by large extent due to their efficiency. The organization on the same line had to introduce the portable digital automatic data processing machines. The machines are capable of processing coded data, uncode it and stores them appropriately. The storage units used had the high capacity for storage to accommodate the large data flowing (Klemes et al., 2012. P.p 1-8).
The technology advancement in the organization has resulted in some benefits. The IT has led to enhancement of the operating efficiencies within the organization. The operating efficiency has been realized through operation of trade activities, money transaction, reduction of losses and making tedious works simple. The IT has led to improvement in the performance of the organization as more work is done within a short period and with reduced investment.
The IT has led to improved products quality as the computer makes few errors. There is reduced risk factors as the level of theft cases are reduced, and the direct involvement of the business transactions with the employees is reduced. Those who operate the machines were few compared when the business activities were done manually. As a result, there an is the ultimate increase in the level of profit achieved by the organization. The system has also enhanced the decision-making process, especially due to the online meetings where several members are involved and their ideas are involved (Gagne, G., 2015. P.p 79-90).
EMERGING ISSUES ABOUT INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY
There are emerging issues in the running and management of the organization. The issues include; deregulation of telecommunication which has called for the WTO to adjust with the new changes in the telecommunication system. Most government services have been shifted to online. Thus, the organization has to adjust their operation to be in line with the government systems for efficient operations.
There is increased competition between cables, mobile phones, and fixed line. The fiber cables are the quickest means of communication but very expensive to install. Hence, the organization has to choose between the competing systems and choose that which will suit them best at minimum cost. Future changes in the WTO should be the use of the fiber optic cables which are very quick and efficient. The cables will help the company to transact their business their business activities within their member countries at increased speed and with high convenience (Gagne, G., 2015. P.p 79-90).
The E-banking services are other emerging issues that the WTO has to adopt to its services. The e-banking services will help the members and the consumers to safely transact their business activities fairly. E-banking is moving in hand with the mobile banking and transactions, hence the organization should shift to this form of transactions to make business transactions to their consumers quick, easier, safe and more convenient (Stone Sweet et al., 2013. P.p 61-88)
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND CLEANER PRODUCTION POLICY BY WTO
Cleaner production refers to the integrated strategies by an organization to prevent, air, water, and soil pollution and with an aim of protecting human health and conserve the environment. Cleaner production has to involve all the stakeholders in an organization that is the community, customers, suppliers, employees and the environment. It will ultimately result to profit and conservation of the environment (Khalili et al., 2015. P.p 30-43).
WTO has observed the cleaner production policy in various ways. The organization has raised environment protection policies of trade. The policies are meant to guide the members, the suppliers, the consumers in controlling environment pollution and ensuring that they do not dispose of hazardous product to the environment.
Sustainable development is one of the objectives of the WTO. Hence, conservation and protection of the environment are at the front line of their set goal and objective. They controlled the export of products that are prohibited domestically due to the environmental pollution. Some countries such as U.S complained about some of the hazardous products leachings. It led to the campaign called “green the WTO” which demanded the organization to include the environment in the system of multilateral trade rules (Khalili et al., 2015. P.p 30-43).
The organization engaged into subsidies agreement with the government which restricted the extent of the government paying subsidies to its citizens. Paying for subsidies led to misuse of products like paying of fertilizer supplied by WTO led to over usage of the fertilizer that resulted in soil pollution and water pollution due to the leakage of the excess nitrates into the water bodies (Khalili et al., 2015. P.p 30-43).
The organization has also engaged in a multilateral agreement which was intended to protect the environment and to co-operate accordance to the cleaner production. They minimized the level of pollution in the member countries, reduced level of wastage through recycling of re-usable products, they supported sustainable developments in their regions of operation and led to eco-efficiency in the member countries (Klemes et al., 2012. P.p 1-8).
STATUS REVIEW ON CLEANER PRODUCTION POLICIES BY THE WTO
WTO set objectives on conserving and maintaining the environment has been vivid. They use cans that are recyclable to pack their products. The cans are recycled hence leading to the lack of pollution of the environment in the world. The WTO is co-operated with the UNEP, which is the organization meant to protect and conserve the environment and ensure there is cleaner production by the established organizations (Klemes et al., 2012. P.p 1-8).
The WTO aid in funding activities held by the UNEP of cleaning and conserving the environment. They have also banned the sale of products that are harmful to the human health and the environment. Products like the use of DDT was prohibited by this organization due to its pollution of the environment and risk to the human health (Klemes et al., 2012. P.p 1-8).
They have improved their technology in handling those products and materials that their exposure would lead to environmental pollution. Transport of hazardous products that are not prohibited is held in special cans and case of any spillage; they carry quick control measure before the product harms the environment and the human beings in the environment (Van Hoof et al., 2013. P.p 270-282)
CLEANER PRODUCTION POLICIES AND IMPROVING RESOURCE UTILISATION
Cleaner production policies include; pollution control, minimize waste production and release to the environment, sustainable development, ecological design among others. The minimizing waste release is done through the appropriate use of the products with the right amounts. Misusing of the products is prevent hence encouraging proper utilization of the product (Almeida et al., 2013. P.p 1-10).
Recycle of the waste of products ensures that there is no discharge of waste materials to the environment. The recycled materials are put into other useful activities which lead to utilization of every product supplied or purchased. The activity results in the conservation of the environment and the human from diseases and other risks (Hayyan et al. 2014., p.p 246-251)
Carrying of sustainable development ensures that it is every stake holder’s objective and role towards conserving and protecting our environments. The conservation will lead to utilization of resources, and the members develop the attitude of proper management and a social responsibility of protecting their resources (Almeida et al., 2013. P.p 1-10).
It is every person’s role to ensure they run their activities effectively and with responsibilities. Cleaner production is the role of all members of society with the leading organizations being at the front line in conserving and protecting the environment (Almeida et al., 2013. P.p 1-10).
The stakeholders in every organization or company should ensure they can manage the waste product that is produced from their products. They should reduce the amount of waste disposed of through recycling and re-use of the wastes. The wastes should be converted into cash to ensure there are no losses from the wastes.
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