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Information and Technology


Information technology is universally acknowledged as an aspect of engineering that revolves around the employment of computers as well as telecommunications to store, retrieve and transmit information and data (Melville Kraemer and Gurbaxani 2004 285). Additionally, it is also known that most organizations employ technology to make their work automated and tin the process making their work more manageable, easier and at the same time quicker to realize their objectives. Moreover, Information and technology helps in reducing the costs involved in time consuming and repetitive costs. In other words, it ensures that the productivity levels of an organizations increases and through the automation process, it reduces the time spend by workers on value added services (Davenport, 2013 37). In this case, the manager of an organization employs Information and technology to carry out their primary functions such as organizing, planning, leading and directing, staffing and controlling to enable them to realize the organizations goals and objectives with the much-needed effectiveness and efficiency.

Discussion of the managerial roles

In organizations, planning is accepted as the process of developing and establishing goals coupled with an appropriate action that will enable this goal to be realized. Additionally, to establish very smart goals a manager of the organization needs to be well endowed with conceptual skills. In other words, the manager of the organization requires employing their cognitive abilities to strategically think (Melville Kraemer and Gurbaxani 2004 290). Besides, the manager needs to evaluate and make some tough choices that will ensure that the company maximizes on the utility choices that are available. One challenge that arises when it comes to this issues is the fact that some managers may be blinded by bounded rationality that may prevent them from being in a better position to make the right decisions from a wide scope of data and information. One lucky attribute the modern organizations possess is the fact that there are information and technology such as the Artificial Intelligence which has the capability of performing obligations that need the intelligence of the human. By entering certain data algorithms and information into a computer system most especially those designed for Artificial Intelligence, the organization managers can analyze data easily and clearly see the consequences of certain decisions and in the process, make the right choice. For instance, the most common Artificial Intelligence technological system in the Executive Information Systems since it assists managers by providing the most common factors of realizing the organization’s strategic objectives (Melville Kraemer and Gurbaxani 2004 298). As compared to the previous generations, the modern generations found it easy to employ online systems to keep track of their company and their competitors as well through applications such as Facebook and Twitter.

Another significant role in management revolves around organizing which encompasses the allocation of roles and tasks while in the process, grouping them based on the assignment authority, resource allocation, and departments across the organization (Applegate Austin and McFarlan 2009 47). For the managers to continue evolving with the current speed of events and occurrences in the business world, it is argued that they need to be always up to date with the latest technological advancements. In other words, the managers should employ the internet in learning about the new emerging trends of technology and establish the most appropriate technology to their business. Additionally, through the internet, the manager is in a position to know the resources required to implement the technology as well as the cost that will be involved (Applegate Austin and McFarlan 2009 47). Moreover, in organizing, the managers of any organization are also expected to reduce the level of costs that are incurred via effort duplication and harmonize all the activities that each and every member of the organization engages in. Besides, a very effective way that this strategy can be realized is through cloud computing as well as the establishment of virtual computing. In simple terms, cloud computing is a process in which information and data are stored via the internet by using a cloud service provider (Turban et al 2008 53). Apparently the information stored on the cloud service provider can be accessed by any member of the organization who has login details. In this technique, the workers can easily update themselves about whatever that is going to the organization which is a much better technique as compared to the manual reports which in most cases duplicate information and doubles the workers efforts (Davenport, 2013 37). By the establishment of a virtual organization, it is accepted that the managers can use any information technology to connect and link individuals, ideas, assets and in the process share risks and infrastructure hence curbing the concept-to-cash time via sharing.

It is universally accepted that each and every organization needs both non-human and human resources to conduct its activities (Melville Kraemer and Gurbaxani 2004 312). In other words, without the employment of human resources, it is very challenging for the company or organization to realize its goals and objectives. Additionally in performing the staffing function, the managers of the organization try as much as possible to employ individuals who are competent and have gone through effective and proper appraisal, selection as well as development to assist in achieving the organization’s goals (Davenport, 2013 40) Technology, on the other hand, has made the staffing function easier and less cumbersome through the employment of advanced technologies like telephony and the internet. In simple terms, due to technology, manager’s no longer need to establish a meeting with job applicants for job appraisal (Katz 2009 59). Apparently, all this can be achieved over the internet by employing technologies such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) which makes it possible for an individual to make a video call online. Besides, Skype and Google Hangouts can also be useful in conducting interviews. A more advanced technology such as Codassium assists managers to evaluate the job applicants coding capabilities while at the same time interview them. LinkedIn, which is a social networking site, is also crucial in helping the managers to perform their staffing function since it is a networking site in which all professionals update their curriculum Vitae and their qualifications (Davenport, 2013 43). In fulfilling the staffing role, the Internet can also be useful in enabling the mangers to post the best training program for its employees. Besides, they can prepare lessons and notes on their respective computers which can be displayed via projectors in staff training g workshops.

Directing is another primary function of the managers of the organization. It means guiding, giving instructions, leading and motivating the organization staffs in doing their job obligations to realize the organization’s goals. In this case, the manager needs to articulate a clear objective and vision in which other staff members may be able to emulate and follow (Liang et al 2007 67). In this case, the multimedia technologies are very significant in realizing this function. In other words, the managers can employ cloud computing, presentation programs during the organization workshops, besides, through cloud computing, the managers can inspire their employees and junior staff members to strive for better results since they know that their leader is together with them (Melville Kraemer and Gurbaxani 2004 318). Directing revolves around communicating and motivating members a lot and in this case, telephony is very significant since it enables managers to make frequent calls to their workers and inspire them for the benefit of the organization in the long-run. Furthermore, the managers can as well send out emails to workers to ensure that they are aware of the organization goals and what is expected of them in their line of duty. Managers of organizations can also get some aid from 3-d simulations which can ensure that the information conveyed by the manager is very comprehensible, and employees can relate to it very easily. Staff meetings can as well be recorded in an audio format which can be transcribed at a later stage, and this is also made easier by employing tools such as Wreally Studios, which breaks down audio data into text (Liang et al 2007 63).Owing to the fact that the modern era is characterized by technology, the mangers can reward their employees by giving them technology related gifts. In other words, the employees efforts can not only be rewarded by an increase in salaries, promotion but also through the issuance of computers, mobile phones coupled with an implicit goal of ensuring that the workers are well-equipped with the necessary resources to deal with information technology.

Controlling as a function of management revolves around monitoring organization activities to ensure that they are strategically in line with the goals of the organization. In this case, to realize this function, organization managers employ electronic spreadsheets like LibreOffice Calc or Microsoft Excel coupled with database programs that help to aggregate activities results so as to ascertain if the organization workers are conforming to the objectives and goals of the organization (Davenport, 2013 37). Additionally, the managers obtain data and information via the information internet or emails, and the information is then transmitted through some administration channels to ensure that appropriate function is taken into consideration. Apparently, there is no need to rely on the normal and the usual reliance on the paper trail to monitor workers (Liang et al 2007 67). During the ancient times, the managers had to collect and gather all the staff members to deliver information but the advancement of technology such as cloud computing has made work easier since all inputs can be entered into a computer system and be accessed by all the workers. Cloud computing systems programs are believed to possess login information which helps the organization managers to race problems and challenges very effectively since workers can log in into the system and work on an office document simultaneously and pass it to the next action step. The managers may also employ mobile communications technology to effortlessly and regularly communicate and check on their employees to see to it that they are engaging in the right organization activities (Davenport, 2013 37).


It is acknowledged that the advancement in Information technology is here and does not show any signs of ending. Additionally, technology has a variety of application in an organization’s management role since besides making the managers work more effortless and easier; it also increases the level of productivity though effectiveness and efficiency. However, as much as it is very significant in the management of the organization, it also possesses some drawbacks which can result in some negative implication to the organization. In this case, it is, therefore, important that the management of any organization should not be over-reliance on it, but instead, they should attempt integrating IT with some ancient or previously employed techniques even if they are manual techniques because there is always a high tendency for failure and breakdown. But in most cases, Information and Technology help in making an organization more productive by reducing the time taken to perform an activity, increasing work rate, cutting down on the cost of labor and building workers to perform their tasks with much ease.

Reference list

Applegate, L.M., Austin, R.D. and McFarlan, F.W., 2009. Corporate information strategy and management: text and cases. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Davenport, T.H., 2013. Process innovation: reengineering work through information technology. Harvard Business Press.

Katz, R.L., 2009. Skills of an effective administrator. Harvard Business Review Press.

Liang, H., Saraf, N., Hu, Q. and Xue, Y., 2007. Assimilation of enterprise systems: the effect of institutional pressures and the mediating role of top management. MIS Quarterly, pp.59-87.

Melville, N., Kraemer, K. and Gurbaxani, V., 2004. Review: Information technology and organizational performance: An integrative model of IT business value. MIS Quarterly, 28(2), pp.283-322.

Turban, E., Leidner, D., McLean, E. and Wetherbe, J., 2008. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGEMENT, (With CD). John Wiley & Sons.