Individual Bilingualism Essay Example

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8INDIVIDUAL BILINGUALISM

Individual Bilingualism

Part A: Annotated Bibliography

Topic: The relationship between bilingualism and the onset of dementia symptoms

Ossher, L., Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Murphy, K. J., & Troyer, A. K. (2013). The effect of bilingualism on amnestic mild cognitive impairment. The Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences68(1), 8-12.

In defining bilingual language and bilingual behavior, Ossher et al., (2013) uses the keywords of the type of language use, monolinguals, and social background. The authors define bilingualism as the use of more than one language by a person. A person who knows and can speak another language is a bilingual while who speaks only one language is a monolingual. The authors took an individual perspective of bilingualism in demonstrating how different individuals will experience different onset times of dementia as a result of bilingualism. Bilinguals have a delayed onset of the symptoms while monolinguals have prompted symptoms of dementia. This definition will be suitable for describing my context of individual bilingualism. The authors gave a clear distinction between the ability to speak more than a single language as bilingual and speaking one language as monolingual. They also added that a person who suits in a different cultural background is bilingual.

Alladi, S., Bak, T. H., Duggirala, V., Surampudi, B., Shailaja, M., Shukla, A. K., … & Kaul, S. (2013). Bilingualism delays the age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status. Neurology81(22), 1938-1944.

The terms used by Alladi et al., (2013) in describing bilingual language behavior and use include monolingual groups, bilingual groups, the influence of languages spoken, occupation, education and ways of interaction. The researchers used a societal perspective of bilingualism to describe their view of the influence of bilingualism on the onset of dementia. The groups using one type of language are monolingual while that using more than one language were bilingual. Group members influenced by the different languages spoken and other factors of interaction including education and occupation were bilingual. The description of the authors suits well in describing my context of individual bilingualism. The study provides a wider perspective of bilingualism that gives a supportive view of my context. The authors demonstrate a deeper perspective of bilingualism and how groups are bilingual. They added that groups had a bilingual behavior when their influence comes from interacting factors such as the language was spoken, education as well as occupation.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Binns, M. A., Ossher, L., & Freedman, M. (2014). Effects of bilingualism on the age of onset and progression of MCI and AD: Evidence from executive function tests. Neuropsychology28(2), 290.

In their study, Bialystok et al., (2014) used various keywords in describing bilingual language utilization and behavior. The authors were describing bilingual patients with the symptoms of dementia. The keywords used include the use of language, lifestyle habits, verbal fluency, Color-Word interference, age, and trails. The researchers used an individual perspective of bilingualism to describe bilingual language behavior among individuals in the different groups. Older patients were bilingual while younger patients were monolingual. Those with different lifestyle habits like alcohol, diet, physical activity and social interactions have bilingual behaviors. Language groups with individuals speaking varying languages are bilingual while those speaking one language are monolingual. Bilingual dementia patients also have the conduct of waiting longer before visiting the clinic. The definition is appropriate for the description of my context of bilingualism because of the varying aspects that the authors have used in defining bilingual language utilization and behavior in the different group of patients.

Perani, D., & Abutalebi, J. (2015). Bilingualism, dementia, cognitive and neural reserve. Current opinion in neurology28(6), 618-625.

The principal words used by Perani & Abutalebi (2015) to describe bilingual language behavior and the use of more than one language, multilingual, lifelong bilingualism, second language proficiency, exposure and brain systems handling more than one language. Perani & Abutalebi used an individual as well as a societal view to describe bilingualism. As per the authors, bilingualism is identified with people with life-long experience of speaking more than one language. Cultures, where people have delayed symptoms of dementia, have bilingual or multilingual individuals. Those who can speak more than one language, with brains that can handle many functions are bilingual. Bilingual individuals have more extended brain systems and thereby referred to as extensively developed bilinguals. Such bilingualism helps these individuals have delayed symptoms of dementia. Individuals with high exposure and proficient in a second language are bilingual. The definition given by the authors is fit for describing my context of bilingualism because I believe that different cultures and individuals that speak diverse languages are bilingual.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., & Luk, G. (2012). Bilingualism: consequences for mind and brain. Trends in cognitive sciences16(4), 240-250.

Bialystok, Craik, & Luk (2012) made use of keywords such as diverse populations, cognitive decline and older age to describe the behavior of bilingual individuals. the author has a personal/individual perspective in describing bilingualism. They used behavioral as well as neuroimaging methods for examining the effects of bilingualism on adulthood cognition behaviors and their impact on the early symptoms of dementia. The authors denoted that bilingual individuals have the capacity to endure even in old age from the occurrence of dementia symptoms. Bilingualism in the aging population increases cognitive reserve during old age and protects the dementia patients from developing the symptoms. The definition is suitable for describing my concept of bilingualism based on diverse populations and knowledge of different languages. Bialystok et al., (2012) described how such differences contribute to bilingual individual and its effect on the cognitive reserve as a factor of delayed symptoms of dementia among the elderly.

Lawton, D. M., Gasquoine, P. G., & Weimer, A. A. (2015). Age of dementia diagnosis in community-dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans. Cortex66, 141-145.

According to Lawton at al., (2015), bilingual language use or behavior is described by keywords such as monolingual, U.S born, immigrant, age and Hispanic Americans groups. The authors used an individual view in giving their findings. Monolingual societies associate with the symptoms of dementia at an earlier age. Bilingual individuals developed the symptoms at a later age. Immigrants are bilingual while the people born in the U.S are monolingual. Better educated individuals tend to be bilinguals while those with little education are monolingual. The author defined bilingual use and behavior as determined by age, place of birth, education levels, and immigration. The definition suits my description of the bilingualism context because different groups presented in the research associate well with my understanding of individual bilingualism. For example in the U.S, Bilinguals are the immigrating to the country while monolinguals are born in the United States. They tend to speak one language while bilinguals can talk the language.

Zahodne, L. B., Schofield, P. W., Farrell, M. T., Stern, Y., & Manly, J. J. (2014). Bilingualism does not alter cognitive decline or dementia risk among Spanish-speaking immigrants. Neuropsychology28(2), 238.

In their study, Zahodne et al. described bilingual language behaviors and use by using several keywords including the use of language, executive function, episodic memory, and speed. The country of origin, education, time spent in the U.S, education and ages are among other factors that influence bilingualism in the community. Using a society view, the researchers described bilingual language behavior among communities whereby, the people associate with high levels of education and higher initial scores on cognitive tests. Those who have spent the longest time in the U.S are monolingual while those who immigrated to other countries are bilingual. The oldest individuals are bilingual with the least chances of developing dementia symptoms. This definition of bilingualism is diverse and fits correctly to the description of my own bilingual concept. My concept of bilingualism considers the various characteristics of different populations as the primary definition of bilingualism.

Freedman, M., Alladi, S., Chertkow, H., Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Phillips, N. A., … & Bak, T. H. (2014). Delaying onset of dementia: are two languages enough?. Behavioral Neurology, 2014.

The description of bilingual language behavior or use by Freedman et al., (2014) was by using different guiding words. The authors used phrases such as speaking two or more languages, physical exercise, and social networks. The study used a societal perspective to describe a global view of bilingualism. The fact that people have different cultural backgrounds is to say that the society comprises of multilingual individuals. According to Freedman et al., (2014) bilingual persons in the society have the capability to strengthen their neural networks and improve their executive control. Being able to speak two or more language is a basic definition of bilingual language use. Immigrants are highly bilingual, and those with a history of long-term use of one language are monolingual. The definition of bilingual language utilization and behavior by the authors is suitable for describing my concept because I can use the information to expound on my essay.

References

Alladi, S., Bak, T. H., Duggirala, V., Surampudi, B., Shailaja, M., Shukla, A. K., … & Kaul, S. (2013). Bilingualism delays the age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status. Neurology81(22), 1938-1944.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., & Luk, G. (2012). Bilingualism: consequences for mind and brain. Trends in cognitive sciences16(4), 240-250.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Binns, M. A., Ossher, L., & Freedman, M. (2014). Effects of bilingualism on the age of onset and progression of MCI and AD: Evidence from executive function tests. Neuropsychology28(2), 290.

Freedman, M., Alladi, S., Chertkow, H., Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Phillips, N. A., … & Bak, T. H. (2014). Delaying onset of dementia: are two languages enough?. Behavioral Neurology, 2014.

Lawton, D. M., Gasquoine, P. G., & Weimer, A. A. (2015). Age of dementia diagnosis in community-dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans. Cortex66, 141-145.

Ossher, L., Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Murphy, K. J., & Troyer, A. K. (2013). The effect of bilingualism on amnestic mild cognitive impairment. The Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences68(1), 8-12.

Perani, D., & Abutalebi, J. (2015). Bilingualism, dementia, cognitive and neural reserve. Current opinion in neurology28(6), 618-625.

Zahodne, L. B., Schofield, P. W., Farrell, M. T., Stern, Y., & Manly, J. J. (2014). Bilingualism does not alter cognitive decline or dementia risk among Spanish-speaking immigrants. Neuropsychology28(2), 238.