I have four question and you can choose one and answer it in Academic essay format. and i want to attache papers that have the details. Example

Australian Multiculturalism vs. the American Melting Pot System

Introduction

Multiculturalism is a conceptual model which sets out standards for national identity and public policy in societies affected by increasing ethno-cultural diversity as a result of immigration. This concept implies acceptance of immigrants and minority groups as distinct communities by the public in a country (Sadri & Flammia, 2011). Further, it refers to the view that the immigrants and the minority groups should preserve their social and cultural practices and that all the different cultures within a nation should interact peacefully and should be treated equally. On the other hand, the melting pot system describes a model in which different ethnic groups in a nation engage in a process of ethnic fusion. This can take a form in which all ethnic groups in a nation-state acculturate and come up with a universal form of symbols and values with no ancestral connotations (Hall, 2005, p. 115). As well, this may take a form in which the different ethnic groups influence each other to the extent that no ancestral group achieves symbolic dominance. Thus, multiculturalism supports the idea of a diverse nation where migrants sustain their ethnic culture while the melting pot system supports a united nation where all people including immigrants abide by the same rules. In view of these points, this essay seeks to make a comparison between multiculturalism in Australia where it has been an official policy for a long time and the melting pot system which is dominant in America. To enhance a better understanding of this, the paper examines the merits and demerits of the two systems, their impacts on individual’s sense of patriotism and finally the impact of immigrants in each of the two nations.

Advantages and disadvantages of the two systems

Both multiculturalism in Australia and the melting pot system in America have served the two countries well in various ways. According to Scicluna (not dated), the values upheld in the Australian multicultural society and in the American melting pot system such as freedom and comparison for others play a very important role in building cohesiveness in the two nations. Scicluna adds that the systems lead to diversity and this enhances the ability of the countries to compete and market themselves globally and thus, boosts their economic growth, levels of employment and standard of living. According to Sadri and Flammia (2011), multiculturalism in Australia has led to a harmonious and cohesive society characterised by attractive cultural and linguistic skills and facilities. This has enabled Australia to become an education export country and a destination for tourists. Sadri and Flammia (2011) further explain that both multiculturalism and the melting pot system the have added significant social and cultural benefits to the culture and quality of lifestyles of the residents as well as to the interaction of individuals and groups in Australia and America.

On the other hand, each of the two systems has some unique disadvantages. As McKenzie, (1998) points out, the numbers of demerits associated with multiculturalism outweigh those of the melting pot system. According to McKenzie, a multicultural society diminishes a country as its culture is diluted, unlike under the melting pot system. In Australia for example, multiculturalism has led to the introduction of many different cultures in the country to the detriment of the original identity, culture and way of life (McKenzie, 1998). McKenzie further notes that, the divisive policies of multiculturalism may lead to conflicts a within nation. In Australia, immigrants are encouraged to sustain and perpetuate their ethnic culture. In schools, children are encouraged to identify with their ethnic backgrounds rather than to become fully Australians. This gives foreign cultures in Australia the ability to sustain their separate development. As a result, according to McKenzie, these policies are increasing the probability of Australians turning against each other. This is in direct contrast to the impact of the melting pot system where migrants relegate their ethnic backgrounds to adopt the national culture. Further, as Blainey (cited in McKenzie, 1998) asserts, multiculturalism leads to creation of ‘micro-nations’ within a nation, each with their own political and cultural agendas. In reference to the Australian context, Blainey argues that;

“As Australia struggles to encompass the many little Chinas, little Japans, little Italys, and little Croatias, all determined to preserve their own national, cultural and ethnic peculiarities (including not only ‘lovely’ dancing and foods, but sometimes strange, if not barbaric, customs; as well as some extremely strong ethnic hatreds), it is very easy to see the disunity created among these ethnic communities; as well as between them and those who see themselves as ‘Australians’, foremost loyal to Australia”(McKenzie, 1998).

This explains the fact that in certain perspectives, multiculturalism may pose threats to national unity. One weakness associated with the melting pot system is that as individuals adopt the new national culture, they relegate their ethnic backgrounds and cultural practices. Consequently, they lose some important traditional values and cultural practices that would attract tourists, (Sadri & Flammia, 2011).

Patriotism

Multiculturalism has a negative impact on the sense of patriotism. According to McKenzie, (1998),it leads to lack of loyalty and patriotism for the country of residence to the extent that ethnic groups give allegiance to and always feel emotionally attached to the nation of their ethnic background. For example in July 1982 when Italy won the international soccer World Cup, a lot of Australians with Italian ethnic background made huge celebrations in Carlton (a suburb in Melbourne which is a strong base for ethnic Italians). McKenzie notes that this was not the case in the previous years when other countries won the World Cup.Arguably, this was not a celebration for whoever won the cup, buta celebration for Italian victory by ethnic Italians of multicultural Australia. Thus, as McKenzie points out, such loyalties are inevitable in such situations where a country’s establishments encourage immigrants to perpetuate and sustain their ethnic practices. In Australia, this is reflected by a low up take of Australian citizenship as well as a high rate of retention of dual citizenship by most of the immigrants. In fact, some immigrants maintain close interests in all the problems encountered by their former nations especially where this involves close links with these foreign governments.

In contrast, the melting pot system enhances patriotism. According to Nancy (2009), most of the immigrants to America develop an allegiance to the American society, become involved in a variety of American institutions and work to build their lives and the lives of their children in their new country of residence. Interestingly, many immigrants defend their new nation. For example, according to a report which was published in February 2008 by the Migration Policy Institute, more than 65,000 US immigrants were serving in the U.S army on active duty. Studies indicate that there are various factors which explain why immigrants join the military, including the need to gain skills to enable them gain a good stead when they return to civilian life. Most significantly, they are driven by the sense of belonging to America and the desire to show patriotism.

Role of migrants

Migrants bring about various social and economic impacts in both Australia and American. According to Clyne (1991, p. 215), immigrants coming to Australia from different parts of the world bring a wealth of different languages and cultural understandings into the country. They also connect Australia to personal contacts and to a wealth of business in different parts of the world where Australia wants to invest. Consequently, Australia has gained a lot of economic opportunities in Asia as a result of immigrants from the part, which would not have been the case if it remained a closed society. According to Heskett (2009), the liberal immigration policies in America provide an opportunity for some of the most intelligent and knowledgeable individuals in other countries to bring with them new skills. Also, more immigrants means additional labour and this leads to additional flexibility for businesses which, leads to higher profits, better quality products and reduction in prices in a nation.

Migrants also play negative roles in both America and Australia. For example, immigration into America has been presenting an opportunity for drug dealers, terrorists and other criminals to enter into the country (Messerli, 2011). In addition, as Messerli notes, immigrants consume a lot of national resources in both US and Australia such as education, health care and welfare without paying corresponding high amounts of taxes. Finally, the increase in the number of migrants means increased competition for job opportunities and this leads to fewer job opportunities for less skilled citizens.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the term multiculturalism means acceptance of immigrants and minority groups as distinct communities by the public in a country and embraces the view that they should preserve their social and cultural practices and that all the different cultures within a nation should interact peacefully and should be treated equally. On the other hand, the term melting pot in this context describes a model in which different ethnic groups in a nation engage in a process of ethnic fusion to the extent that no ancestral group achieves symbolic dominance. The two systems which are dominant in Australia and America respectively have similar advantages as demonstrated in the above discussion. Also, they have some disadvantages, with those of the multiculturalism outweighing those of the melting pot system. As disclosed in the discussion, multiculturalism has a detrimental impact on individual sense of patriotism whereas the melting pot system promotes patriotism. Finally, this discussion demonstrates that migrants into America and Australia play significant roles, both positive and negative in building these nations socially as well as economically.

References

Clyne, M. G. (1991). Community languages: The Australian experience. Cambridge University Press.

Hall, L. E. (2005). Dictionary of multicultural psychology: Issues, terms, and concepts. London: Sage.

Heskett, J. (December 2009). “Should Immigration Policies Be More Welcoming to Low-Skilled Workers?” Harvard Business School. Retrieved 3September 2011, from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6326.html.

McKenzie, C. (1998). “The menace of multiculturalism. Retrieved 2September 2011, from http://www.gwb.com.au/gwb/news/pc/multi3.htm

Messerli, J. (2011). “Should America Maintain/Increase the Level of Legal Immigration?” Retrieved 2September 2011, from http://www.balancedpolitics.org/immigration.htm.

Nancy, (2009). “American Melting Pot Is a Rich Stew.” Retrieved 2September 2011, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4026/is_200907/ai_n32425800/

Sadri, H. A. & Flammia, M. (2011). Intercultural Communication: A New Approach to International Relations and Global Challenges. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Scicluna, F. L. (not dated). “Australia a multicultural society.” Retrieved 3September 2011, from http://www.aboutmalta.com/grazio/multiaustr.html.