Hydraulic Essay Example


Q. Define the following terms in relation to water supply

Turbidity is a measure of how the suspended particles in water affect its clarity.

BOD is the amount of oxygen that is required by bacteria while decomposition organic materials under aerobic conditions.

COD refers to amount of oxygen required by strong oxidizing chemical reagent to completely oxidize the water sample.

Flocculation is the process of collision of smaller particles resulting in formation of floc or larger particles.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion activity or the intensity of alkalinity or acidity of water. Color of water is the apparent appearance resulting from both suspended and dissolved components of water.

Facultative refers to a condition with both aerobic and anaerobic environments.

Coagulation involves addition of iron or aluminum salts to the water during primary treatment. Anaerobic digestion is a group of processes by which microorganisms break down organic matter in the absence of oxygen.

Aerobic process is where bacteria uses oxygen to biodegrade organic matter.

Anoxic is a process of biologically converting nitrate-nitrogen to nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions.

Heterotrophic bacteria are those that require organic matter as both carbon and energy source in the synthesis of new micro-organisms.

Autotrophic bacteria are those that oxidize inorganic compounds for energy and uses carbon dioxide for carbon source.

Food to microorganism ratio (F: M) is a measure of the process’ loading rate in the aerobic systems of treatment.

Biofilms are clusters of cells which adhere to the surfaces of the liquor.

Growing period is time in the year when the natural weather conditions allow normal crops’ growth.

Bacteriological quality refers to the number of bacteria present in water.

Sloughing is the process of by which animals and plants shed off their dead surface cells from their skin or barks.

Two advantages of irrigation- it increases the quantity and quality of plant biomass with high surety. Secondly, it restores land to higher production.

Outcomes of the Victorian 1905 Water Act are the introduction of complete government sponsored irrigation in the area, reduced uncertainties as to the water rights of the irrigation, increased interest on the options that irrigation provided for the farmers in drought proofing areas and full centralization of water pricing and allocation (Harris & Edwyna 15).

Raised bed leaky pipes leads to watering of the plants from above the ground while in raised bed furrow irrigation the plants absorb the water from the sides of the furrows.

Challenges faced by Murray Irrigation Limited included opposition by both the Scientists and conservationists. Secondly, lack of public support on the proposed plan.

Reasons for new remedial work in Goulburn Weir are to stabilize deteriorating weir structure and preserve part of that unique engineering piece.

Water saving measures being installed by NVIRP include subterranean lawn sprinkler and timer system synced to adjust to weather conditions.

Two major issues rectified by 1905 water Act are decentralized water allocation and pricing. Secondly, water rights of the irrigators.

MDBC’s salinity and drainage strategy is to improve the quality of water in River Murray for all the beneficial uses.

The outcomes of Murray River Agreement between 1902 and 1914 are increased interest in the development of urban centers in South Australia and the intrusion of water quality questions.

Connection between Woolpunda Salt Interception Scheme and MDBC’s Salinity and Drainage strategy is that they exhibit the same objective, which is to improve water quality along River Murray.

Works Cited

Harris, Edwyna. «The impact of institutional path dependence on water market efficiency in Victoria, Australia.» Water resources management 25.15 (2011): 4069-4080.