HISTORY OF CHINA 1
History of China
How has Chinese history influenced the modern Chinese state?
As China’s power as well as influence growth continues in Asia, several analysts require Chinese history for them to get a clear understanding of China’s behavior and scrutiny the future of the world. In pre-modern era, the security behavior with Chinese varied enormously from era to another and between times of weaknesses and strength. Variation was very extensive until some of the China historian developed a believe that it was difficult to make a meaningful generalizations on traditional Chinese security behavior and foreign policy. They believed that rise of nationalism and materialization of nation state in china in 19th and 20th centuries and effort to build a prosperous, strong and modern as well as society together will offer a reliable and relevant context for understanding present and future security behavior of Chinese than the pre modern era does. Tie history influenced Chinese behavior and thought in three ways. In regards to the first era of china several people in china are very proud of china’s history and they believe that china is from the frontage positions of the main power in some respect nations. They are also proud due to accomplishment china had during era of market driven economic. For many Chinese, domestic chaos experience was closely associated with depredations which were inflicted on China as a result of imperialist western power as well as Japan 19th and 20th centuries which was also called century of humiliation. More so, for several Chinese, political freedom and western personal in a big country like china having large population who are poorly educated and low income, weak civil society and elevated levels of corruption can lead to chaos. Due to these concerns as well as the China’s desire to become wealthy and strong, they started to value unified, strong as well arrogantly nationalistic central government which was led by worthy individuals who were concerned and kept people’s interest in their minds. This belief is now changing among people who are educated in china gradually. Several Chinese still offer only tools for development in prosperity and power but not social and political models. The interpretation of history of Chinese which statist nationalists provided have inculcated in several Chinese the way they view china in the humankind that is largely non-threatening and peace loving oriented towards the protection of ,its internal development and territory, and more aligned with developing state and basic interest rather than industrial democracies which are advanced. Furthermore, a long pre-modern fact of vulnerability and unstable boarders to attacks from margin put together with the experience of century of humiliation, have inculcated a brawny suspicion to the possible exploitation of domestic scene of china by the outsiders. Due to this reason, most Chinese view western dominance in the present world (especially Americans) as part of long historical inclination for stronger authority to interfere in, as well as victims upon weaker power. For several Chinese, west assist growth in china for personal profit.
2 How important is culture in modern China?
Cultural values of china influenced, national identity and psychology. The cultural values include courtesy, honesty, harmony, loyalty, righteousness, benevolence and filial piety. Secondly it brought about respect where employee cannot call their boss the first name one important culture teaching that persists. Chinese’s modern culture includes importance given to status and hierarchy. China considers culture important in correcting adverse imitations created by rapid strategic rise. Cultural diplomacy as well as well as soft power is important strategies for leadership in Chinese in developing compassionate impressions about china as well as securing deliberate dividends through “upright” policies of engagement.
3 How free is the media in China?
Reporter without Boarder group, in the year 2014 in its worldwide (PDF) index of press freedom, out of 180 nation’s China was ranked China in number 175. Edward R. Murrow matt Pottinger Press Fellow reported that Chinese media outlets normally employ their monitors to guarantee political accessibility of the content. Censorship guidelines are distributed every week from the department of Communist Party Propaganda as well as the management Bureau of internet Dealings to media providers and prominent editors. The government is keen on blocking account on issues that can incite social unrest such as ethnic strife and official corruption.
4 How is the Chinese government dealing with the increasingly open nature of the internet?
Chinese implement regulations in this sector of internet usage since its citizen happens to be among the world’s leading populace of internet connection. China has intricate systems like an intranet and it is used to control the net. It also has human censor who is responsible in taking down as well as Weddle out any content deemed unfit. Severally, it has blocked how people have been accessing to international news location that has criticized the government of Chinese or even any issues that are related to censorship. They have considered structure building in their nation for network that will protect or control server connections globally.
5 How has the ancient Chinese empire influenced the modern Chinese state?
The character of modern state of Chinese has been influenced diversely by the Chinese internal history. The way ancient influenced the modern Chinese is discussed in three aspects which include national pride flanking chaos’s strong fear, an inculcated defensive polity and love of piece image leading to virtuous and strong central government and finally unique leadership mutually beneficial of many state relation. Several Chinese are pound of long history of china as vibrant and strong culture and being a highly influential social and political entity. This has really shaped the current nation of china and spread unity and security among them. The chaoses they are experiencing currently are associated with the perditions made earlier on china by imperialist western power.
6 What is the international perception of China in the modern era and how has it changed?
There are various perceptions facing china which include leadership perception, foreign policy, social stability and economic performance. These issues matters so much as they were to determine the success or failure of China. China has been among the best performing economy since 1979. Now it desire move from economy that is export driven to the economy that is of more conception model. Domestic stability fits together with economic progress. This has changed china since due to progress in the economy they were able to introduce technology which brought information flow amongst people living in china and outside China.
What role does gender play in modern China?7
Most of the leadership role in china was restricted to males. In churches men serve as deacons or priest. In senior positions they serve as bishop, pope or patriarch while women serve as abbesses. The family structure and gender roles since early times in china, men were seen to be the head or the leader of the family while women were in the records only when they caused trouble. Their loyalty was questioned often. It was the role for women to obey their growing sons and husbands.
8 Why did the Chinese government decide on the one child policy?
One-child- policy was a family planning policy in china used to control population. The policy was introduced starting from 1978 to 1980 which properly phased out in the year 2015. In the year 2017, thirty six percent of the population in China was the major reason to restrict one child but fifty three percent was allowed to get the second child if only they had their first child being a girl. There were fines for violation imposed by provincial government while local and national government introduced commission to raise the creation of awareness furthermore carry out inspection work and registration.
9 How has China’s economy changed over the past 20 years since the Deng era?
Economic reforms for introducing market principal started in the year 1978 then they were performed in two stages. The first stage involved introducing the country to the foreign investment which begun in 1978 and allowing the entrepreneurs to commence business. The second stage took place in 1980s and 1990s and it involved contracting out and privatization of industries which were state owned and, increases of price controls, regulations, and protectionist policies even though petroleum and banking sectors remained. From 1978 to 2013 extraordinary growth occurred and the economy increased by 9.5 percent every year. This resulted to several changes in Chinese society.
10 Would you describe the Chinese economy as planned or free market?
A planned economy can be described as an economic system where inputs are based much on direct allocation. It can perform in a distributed, centralized or decentralized approach depending on the precise organization of financial institutions. The Chinese economy is a planned economy since from 1978 when they implemented market principals they started growing and their economy advanced. Since it was established. According to estimations made it is seen that a quarter to one third of economy in china can be accredited to state-owned enterprise. The percentage relates to employment and value-add but since 1978 the value has been going down when entire economy was planned.
11 What role does China play in the United Nations?
In united state China is much committed in strengthening the norms of intercontinental law. secondly, according to Liu China has contributed so much on improvement of budget in the united state, also play a great role in peacemaking. it has offered support on maintaining the principles and purpose of the United State charter. China plays a very crucial role as it was to shape United State in terms of development. It is known for principled practicality in the reflection process of Security Council. It was flexible in dealing with international security and peace in United State.
12 How has China used its veto power to push the Chinese national interest?
China used their veto power to block resolutions which were designed to pressure the president of Syria Basher al-Assad and stop the conflict that had killed, thousands of people. The outcome of their action was to protect a vicious regime. Diplomatically, china exhibited their communal interest by the use of veto power in United Nations Security Council. In the past years China used six vetoes, with each in recital with Russia. Their excessive utilization of veto power was understood as a tool to reduce the speed at which American military interfered in Middle East and to challenge western leadership.
13 Are human rights still an issue in China today?
China is an authoritarian state that curbs fundamental rights which include association, freedom of expression, religious and assembly during the time their excise is professed to intimidate one party rule. Human rights defenders face imprisonment, house arrest, arbitrary abuse and harassment, physical abuse and intimidation. china’s human rights are extremely contested on which the administration of the republic of people of china together with their supports, the human rights organization and critics they both have different views. People’s Republic of China, proponents together with their supporters have a claim that the enforcement measure and current policy should guard against human right abuse.
14 How has the Chinese government dealt with the human rights issue since the Beijing Olympics?
A number of controversies and concerns at summer Olympics surfaced during, before and after the Olympic games. Leading-up the Olympics in china there were concerns on human right. Even after the Olympic the government of Chinese went on to sanction individual and to control the journalists they printed an online media but it fail to fulfill the extreme restrictions though unpredictably they imposed laws and regulations. Even though Benjing Olympics was a well documented gush in free association and expression and media rights violation they did not manage to change the way Chinese company was handling human rights
15 How is the Chinese government dealing with climate change?
China is most likely to suffer global warming effects which include glacier retreat, sea level rise and air pollution. The strong measures taken by China to in culminate and combat climate change include peaking gas emission in greenhouse and increasing source of non-fossil, to reduce energy conception by around 15 % and also carbon concentration by 18%. They also announce their intention to establish pilot carbon trading systems since pilots covers the largest percentage of carbon emission around their respective jurisdictions. They also have a plan of introducing cap and trade program to cover iron and steel, building materials and the power generation.
16 Is the environment seen as important in China?
The environment in china is so important. The basic national policy in china is protecting the environment. The control and prevention of environmental pollution as well as ecological destruction, consumption of natural resources and rational exploitation are very important in the country’s overall interest as well as long term development. Chinese formulate and emphasis the effects of laws and regulation which regard environmental protection. They place the protection of environment on a legal footing and they continuously improve the statutes which concerns environment and formulating severe law enforcement procedure as well as increasing law enforcement intensity to ensure laws and regulation for the environment are implemented effectively.
17 How has China dealt with security concerns on the Korean peninsula?
Chinese have really encouraged North Korea to tackle the barriers inhibiting economic development. Secondly, Chinese play a role in solving any crises that exist in North Korea. They place a greatest value on firmness in the region that is making Korea people reluctant in encouraging for change in peninsula. Chinese promise to support Korean unification so long as they will occur peacefully together with the effort put forward by Korea people themselves. Since southern Korea is stronger than North Korea china is targeting to separate them to promote peace.
18 How important is the Chinese military in maintaining Chinese security?
Chinese military has played an encouraging role in maintaining peace and security. China has taken most important responsibility and it has contributed to peacemaking humanitarian assistance and disaster in the nation. It has also turn out to be increasingly positive to the nation security and contributed to naval escort. Chinese military enhance security to the neighboring country and help in decreasing the possibility of war outbreak between china and the neighboring countries. through military cooperation and politics China has been enabled to contain challenges caused by various types of extreme forces which contributed to regional stability and security.