History — Choose one topic from listed topics Essay Example

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FACTORS THAT INFLUENCED THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Ideological and Historical Factors That Influenced the Establishment of The United Nations

Ideological and Historical Factors That Influenced The Establishment Of The United Nations

Introduction

The United Nation refers to an intergovernmental union that was started on the 24th October 1945 (Lall 1965). The main aim of its formation was the promotion of global co-operation. It replaced the futile League of Nations and the association was formed after the World War 11 in the attempts to prevent such conflicts in future (“Concepts and definitions” 1953). When it was founded, the UN comprised of only 51 members, currently there are 193 members. The UN headquarters are situated at Manhattan in the New York City. Other head offices are situated in Nairobi, Vienna, and Geneva. The UN is funded by evaluated and charitable donations by its member states (Taylor 1962). The major objectives of the UN are; maintenance of global peace and safety; promotion of human rights; promotion of social and economic growth; environment conservation; provision of charitable aids during food crisis, natural calamities, and armed clashes (Goodrich 1947).

Role of the United Nations

During world war 11, the US president Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed discussions concerning the replacement of the League of Nations which led to the drafting of the United Nations agreement in April 1945. The agreement started operating on October 1945 (Tarsitano 2004). Its task of peace maintenance did not initially succeed on the Cold war Between the US and the Soviet Union. The union was involved in key events in Korea and the Congo. It was involved in the establishment of the Israel state. The member states increased significantly as a result of extensive decolonization before 1970 (Higham et al 1965). The union invested heavily on peacemaking and after world war 11, implemented major military and peace maintenance goals across the globe which succeeded marvelously (“Guide to the Archives” 1999).

The UN has six major organs; the Economic and Social Council (promotes global social, economic development); the General Assembly (the principle deliberative congress); the Secretariat (responsible for provision of studies and informatory services required by the UN); the Security Council (decides various peace resolutions); UN System Agencies (the World Bank, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and UNESCO) (Hillenbrand 2010). On a personal view, I believe the United Nations is a very significant force for peace maintenance and human advancement.

Background of the United Nations Creation

In the century before the UN’s establishment, various global agreement unions and forums had been created for regulation of clashes between nations. Such treaties included The Hague Conventions and the International Committee of the Red Cross. Due to the disastrous deaths in the World War 1, the Paris Peace Conference developed the League of Nations whose aim was maintenance of agreement between nations (“Concepts and definitions” 1953). This union settled most territorial conflicts and led to creation of global structures such as; opium control, postal mail, and aviation. Nevertheless, the League did not have representatives from colonial people and important participants for colonial people such as; Japan, Germany, US and the USSR United Nations (“General Assembly” 1994). It did not take any action to prevent the Japanese attack by the Manchuria in the year 1931. Also, it failed to act against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in 1935; the China invasion by the Japanese in1937; Adolf Hitler German extension that ended in the World War 11 (Higham et al 1965).

Despite the failure, its mission did not die. The idea to develop another organization was purposed in 1941. US president Franklin D Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill proclaimed the Atlantic Charter where they vowed to enhance the world peace keeping systems and uphold cooperation (“Guide to the Archives” 1999). In 1942, the world War 11 coalition allies that fought against Germany and Japan signed an assertion by the United Nations agreeing to the rules of the Atlantic Charter. The name United Nations was proposed by President Roosevelt. One year after, the four ally nations (the United States, the United Kingdom, China, and the Soviet Union) made an agreement on formation of an overall global organization (Lall 1965). The four nations gathered in 1944 in Washington D.C at the Dumbarton Oaks parks and set-up a charter for the new union. The new organization was given the name United Nations. However, they had some disagreements such as associations and voters rights (Goodrich 1947). The four countries had a second conference in early 1945 in Yalta, Ukraine where they settled their disputes and agreed on another summit for completion of the role. On April 25 1945, the United Nations was held in San Francisco with 50 nations’ entrusts attending. These entrusts toiled for over two months for the UN charter completion. It included its mission, principles, and the organizational organs (Tarsitano 2004).

The charter comprised of an official accord that committed all the world’s nations to a universal set of regulations and principles which guided their relations. The UN formally came into subsistence on the 24th October 1945 where it included 51 member nations (Tarsitano 2004). Poland was the additional nation to the fifty that had previously sent their delegates. Similar to the League of Nations, the United Nations foundation mission was promotion of peace and prevention of world war. The UN comprehended that its mission would not be accomplished unless it searched for support from the globe’s most influential countries (Keegan 1999). The Union carried out various ideologies to make sure that they attained such support. In the process of encouraging the United States involvement, the UN headquarters were situated in the New York City (Taylor 1962). The UN gave the most authoritative countries in the world the veto power over its major actions; so as to assure them that it would not affect their dominion. Five countries received the veto authority: the United Kingdom, China, the United States, France, and the Soviet Union. The UN is stronger than the previous League because all territories in the world are either members or colony members (Higham et al 1965).Various opinionated entities have spectator roles at the UN such as Vatican City and Palestine. They are considered as non-member entities (Hillenbrand 2010).

Before the establishment of the United Nations, states initially developed the first international union to guide various matters (Smith 2005). The International Telecommunication Union was developed in the year 1865 as the global Telegraph Union and the Universal Postal Union was developed in the year 1874. Both have currently been incorporated as part of the United Nations agencies. In the year 1899, the International Peace Conference took place in The Hague for the elaboration of tools used for peaceful settlement of crisis. Also, another agenda included war prevention and setting rules for warfare (Goodrich 1947). The Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and the Permanent Court of Arbitration were established. Both began their role in 1902 (“The Law of the sea” 1996). The prototype of the United Nations was the League of Nations. This organization was visualized in analogous situations during the World War 1 and was adopted in 1919 (“Guide to the Archives” 1999). It was developed under the Versailles Treaty to uphold global cooperation and attain harmony and safety. The International Labor Organization was also developed in respect to the Treaty of Versailles as an associate group of the League. The League of Nations stopped its activities after it failed in prevention of World War 11 (Keegan 1999).

Events that happened that contributed to the formation of the United Nations.

Zealous German autonomist Adolf Hitler (1882-1945) and his horde attacked Poland in 1939, and almost immediately, the Nazi Germany had invaded much of Europe. Heads of nine countries; Greece, Luxembourg, Belgium, France, and Czechoslovakia held a summit with Britain and its Commonwealth nations in London (Smith 2005). During this summit, the countries approved the Inter-Allied Declaration committing to work cooperatively for a liberated world. After two months, on 14th August, the US president Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945) and the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965) approved the Atlantic Charter where the two heads outlined their goals for global peace. On 1st January 1942, the ‘Declaration by the United Nations was passed by 26 nations who vowed to work cohesively in fighting of the Axis powers which included; German, Japan, and Italy. At the Quebec Conference in August 1943, state escritoire Cordell Hull and British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden made an agreement concerning the drafting of a declaration (Hillenbrand 2010).The declaration comprised of an overall international union that considered the sovereignty of all nations. An accepted declaration was established after a Foreign Minister’s Conference in Moscow in late 1943. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt convened with Premier Joseph Stalin in Tehran, he suggested that they form a global union that comprised all the member nations and a committee of ten members to debate social and economic matters. The Greta Britain, the United States, China, and the Soviet Union would be watch guards for peace enforcement (Goodrich 1947). At this time, Allied delegates created various role-oriented organizations such as the International monetary Fund, The food and Agriculture organization, and the International Civil Aviation (Keegan 1999).

The postwar international organization charter was drafted on September 1944. Its basic principle was joint security (Smith 2005). After completion of the United Nations Charter in 1945, the General Assembly comprised of 5 stable and 6 non-stable members. The Roosevelt government struggled to prevent similar mistakes done by Woodrow Wilson where he sold the League of Nations to the Senate (“United Nations General Assembly Resolution” 1995). It looked for bipartisan hold up and in early September 1943, the Republican Party approved the U.S involvement in the postwar global organization (Smith 2005). The Senate endorsed the UN charter on 28th July 1945 by a vote of 89 against two. Hence, the United Nations came into subsistence on 24th October 1945 after ratification of the Charter by 29 nations (Hillenbrand 2010).

Why was the United Nations Formed?

According to Smith (2005), the United Nations formation included an immaculate broadminded mission of maintaining universal rights. However, he argues that UN was formed as just an expression of ideological expansion of the British kingdom via imperial internationalism. His argument is supported by the fact that, various nations’ delegates who drafted the League Nations were involved in the drafting of the drafting of the UN charter. They include; Jan Smuts, a South African who believed in white ethnic supremacy; Sir Alfred Zimmern, the top British representative of liberal internationalism. The two were members of a large prominent group of liberal internationalism whose mission was to start a freethinking world order that would be companionable with realm and the Anglo American hegemony. According to Smith (2005), Smuts perceived that the UN would ensure white authority to the world; It would act as a tool for their world civilization mission and extend the British empire. Smut appeared in 1940 and presented a draft that was to preface to what would become the United Nations (Lall 1965). This is proof that the Union formation was preceded by the same outlook as the League of Nations.

Contrary to what this argument depicted, majority of the UN scholars such as Inis Claude did not lionize its creation and outlined its origin to the League (Keegan 1999). It has not been clear whether centering on Smuts and Zimmern clarifies the ideology and passion that led to UN foundation. In the end, the UN charter affirmed racial equality and these rights were further aspired in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In 1950s and 1960s, colonial rebellions changed the General Assembly into the influence of global South. According to Wallis (2004), it was influenced by the domination of the old League figures; hence, hindering the UN’s evolution. The question as to whether the current UN functions properly pivots less on the old ideology of the past British imperialists than on whether the most influential powers globally can work together (Hillenbrand 2010).

Conclusion

The United Nations came into existence in October 1945. In the century before the UN’s establishment, various global agreement unions and forums had been created for regulation of clashes between nations. The League of Nations preceded the UN formation. The League of Nations failed to prevent World War 11which led to the ideology of formation of another organization. Similar to the previous Leagues, the main goal of the UN creation was the mission was promotion of peace and prevention of world war.

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