HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS IN INDIA AND AUSTRALIA Essay Example

  • Category:
    Other
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    2
  • Words:
    1332

Comparison between the Indian Healthcare System and the Australian Healthcare System

Name:

Comparison between the Indian Healthcare System and The Australian Healthcare System

Introduction

A health care system refers organization of individuals, foundations, and resources that are required in deliverance of healthcare services to attend to the health needs of a specific population. There exist various health care systems across the globe (Bruijin, 2009). In some places, healthcare system is largely dealt with by the market participants while in others, the government, cooperate unions, well wishers, and religious organizations make resolute efforts to deliver quality health care systems to the people they serve. This paper seeks to соmраrе the Indian Health Care System to the Australian Health Care System and the key differences to concentrate on India and not Australia.

Health indicators

Clinical indicators refer to tools used in measurements of processes and outcomes. Mortality life expectancy and causes of death data are important factors in assessing the general health care system of a country (Okorafor, 2010). In Australia, the standard death rate of men and women aged over 85 years in the last three years has dropped from 6.7 to 4.3 while that of India is currently at 7.39 per 1000 population. This figure indicates the current mortality impact on the Indian population. Though the figure seems high, there is a great reduction in the death rate due to improved healthcare facility efforts by the Indian government. The infant mortality rate of boys is generally relatively higher compared to that of girls. According to Bruijin (2009), the current death rate of infants in Australia is approximately 4.1 per 1000 new births while the Indian infant mortality rate is estimated to be over 77 per 1000 live births. This is due to increased rise in non-communicable diseases as well as contagious diseases in the country. Lack of developed health care insurance system prohibits majority of citizens from acquiring quality healthcare (Dunbar et al, 2011).

In the year 2009, the major cause of death in Australia was Ischaemic heart diseases. These diseases still remain the leading cause of death in Australia, though the death proportions have reduced from 21% to 16% in the last 7 years. In India, the leading cause of death is communicable diseases due to poor living conditions in the overpopulated areas. Tobacco associated illnesses is also among the silent causes of death in India (Dunbar et al, 2011).

Role of government

The Australian healthcare system is funded by various government levels (local, national, and state) and some personal health insurance agencies. The government of Australia funds the public health insurance system and has three components which include; hospice, pharmaceuticals, and medical services. In India, the government spending on the healthcare system is very low. Nevertheless, it has launched the National Rural Mission which aims at improving the healthcare quality. Also, it has launched a Health Information System which establishes information concerning the prevention and containment of various diseases at community level (Okorafor, 2010).

Also, the Australian government regulates health products, health services offered and the health workers qualifications. It guides the national health policies and is accountable for the delivery and running of the public health services such as; community hospitals and public dental cares. Regulations and implementation of public health policies by the Indian government has significantly reduced the disease exposure through sanitization enforcement (Okorafor, 2010). The government has launched a health promotion program which is aimed at reducing the spread of sexually Transmitted Diseases and educating the public on the effects of tobacco smoking. The Indian government has formed strong ties with other non-governmental organizations aimed at improvement of public health because there are diverse factors that influence the healthcare results in India that beyond the government’s authority (Dunbar et al, 2011).

Funding

In Australia, the government is the primary source of funding for the healthcare system. It funds a variety of healthcare services such as; public health programs, services of community health, research related to medicine and health, health personnel, and health infrastructure (Dunbar et al 2011). In India, the government’s public spending on health is very low. It amounts to an approximate of 1.4 % of the Gross Domestic Product (Bruijin, 2009). This disparity is due to high poverty levels in India and the high population; hence, the government is not able to allocate enough funds to cater for the healthcare system. India population is estimated to be 1.2 billion people. Majority of the total population live in the rural areas. Over 400 million Indians live on less than US $1.25 per day and over 45% of the children are malnourished. The Indian government is planning to raise the public health expenditure to 1.7% in the coming years

The Australian Benefits Schedule (MBS) aims at providing monetary support to patients as rebates to support to cater for the costs provided to them by the health specialists. When the Australian government introduced the Medicare levy, there was introduction of a levy to other taxation income to make it possible for the Australian government meets the rising costs of the national health care system (McLean, 2006). Public funds in India are usually combined with private cooperates and external aids which adds up to 4.1% GDP. An example of a private sector in India that funds the public healthcare system is the Narotam Sekhsaria (Gillies, 2003). This agency aims at improving the Indian healthcare system through passing knowledge, provision of equipments and treatment facilities, and improving medical services to the marginalized members of the community (McLean, 2006).

Workforce

The health workforce in Australia is large and varied with various occupations ranging from greatly qualified personnel to assistance staff and volunteers. India is faced with severe cases of health personnel shortage. The health workers are unequally distributed which hinders India from achieving its healthcare improvement systems. Most states India do not have adequate health workers and this shortage has very significant consequences on the overall national healthcare system (“Interim infection control,” 2006). In the last decade, the number of health care workers in Australia has increased drastically by 22.8% in comparison with 6.6% increase of the total population. Though India has increased its production of health workers in the recent years, the inequity in their distribution still persist, Due to the high population and poverty, the Indian healthcare system is faced with substantial challenges in its service deliverance to its citizens (McLean, 2006).

Conclusion

There exist various differences between the Indian and the Australian healthcare system. The Australian healthcare system is well established compared to the Indian healthcare system. The Indian government allocates only a small percentage of the public revenue for healthcare compared to Australia where enough funds are available for the healthcare system. India is overpopulated and the health workers are inadequate and unevenly distributed. In Australia, there are numerous healthcare workers ranging from highly qualified to assistant staff and volunteers. The Indian government is aiming at improving the healthcare system in India in the coming years but this idea is still faced by many barriers such as; high poverty levels, lack of enough qualified personnel, and lack of sufficient funds.

References

Bruijin, I. D. (2009). Ship’s surgeons of the Dutch East Indian Company commerce and the progress of medicine in the eighteenth century. Leiden: Leiden University Press.

. Bowen Hills, Qld.: Australian Academic Press.Deadly healthcareDunbar, J. A., Reddy, P., & May, S. (2011).

. Lanham: University Press of America.Healthcare reform and interest groups: the case of rural AustraliaEvans, F., Han, G. S., & Madison, J. (2006).

. Abingdon, U.K.: Radcliffe Medical Press.What makes a good healthcare system? comparisons, values, driversGillies, A. (2003).

. (2012). Mahindra World City, Tamilnadu: TTK Healthcare Ltd., Publications Division.India, political

. (2006). Canberra, A.C.T.: Dept. of Health and Ageing.Interim infection control guidelines for pandemic influenza in healthcare and community settings

. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.First do no harm law, ethics and healthcareMcLean, S. (2006).

Okorafor, O. A. (2010). Primary healthcare spending striving for equity under fiscal federalism. Cape Town, South Africa: UCT Press.