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Social determinants of health are disorders in our environs where we live, born and work and adversely affect an extensive range of health. They include Economic stability, Health and health care, Education, Neighborhood and built environment. Professionals should use Health assessments to evaluate existing and proposed social policies to impact the society. Strategized health systems should also be applied to improve health gaps between the rich and the marginalized in the society(Cole & Fielding, 2007). By adopting these determinants, practitioners get to understand the relationship between the impact of a place on people’s health and how people experience their environment, thus the acceptance of existing technology.

Psychological theories help one understand why people don’t change their health behavior as they package the message right and appeal to use of common intellectual sense. These approaches have proved the effect of social influences on individual behavior and explained phenomena like scientific methodology. However, they have failed to recognize the role of individual variances in the society(“Strengths and Weaknesses | a2-level-level-revision, psychology, approaches-psychology, social-psychology, strengths-and-weaknesses | Revision World,” n.d.).

Primary health intervention includes controlling the use of hazardous products and aims to prevent an injury before it occurs. An example of Secondary prevention is screening to detect diseases early and of tertiary prevention is cardiac rehabilitation(“primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health,” n.d.). Primary health care delivers most needs in Australia as it aims to offer accessible health care for everyone(“Preventing and treating ill health (AIHW),” n.d.).Gender has helped scientists analyze and observe biological differences in health behavior example development of contraceptive technologies.

A high number of maternal deaths in different parts of the world are due to the disparities in accessing health services(“WHO | Maternal mortality,” n.d.).Human rights front universal health coverage and addressing differences while accessing excellent maternal services.Health systems should respond to women’s needs and collect quality data to reduce inequalities around the world. Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull agreed that indigenous and non-indigenous Australians need to be reunited as racism persists as it imposes stress disorders to the affected.One does not access health services to the expected level when Aboriginal community health services as there is the inadequate share of the mainstream programs.

A health practitioner should acknowledge that people differ according to their language, spirituality, and ethnicity while working with CALD communities.Older CALD Australians are denied care services due to limited knowledge of services provided. An advantage of Ethno specific services is it encourages these communities to be part of decision-making process but may never be accessible to small ethnic communities.Dimensions of resilience are an emotional transition, physical, spiritual and relational resilience.They help people thrive positively on health metrics like depression and weight gain(“The Impact of Resilience on Health Outcomes,” 2017). Social exclusion and capital are indicators that refer to economic and societal interrelations.Social capital reduces stress to those who access it as it supports health but can also surge stress due to extreme strains on support provider.

A community revolves around representing itself, ie, who has the right to speak thus hindering representation in health programs. The key steps of community empowerment include personal action, partnerships, social and political action thus help alleviate people from individual to communal work. Capacity building defines empowerment as it embraces participation in community health elevation. Legislation as a health promotion method can be executed to enforce positive behaviors while on the lower side some behavior isn’t improved even if the target population is reached. The best way to choose a productive model is by understanding the outcomes and interventions.

Organizational communication through seminars and community communication using radio, debates would be a good medium of creating awareness(“effective strategies to raise awareness in a community by Corcoran 2013 — Google Search,” n.d.). Eating healthy diets and engaging in physical exercises are ways to prevent chronic diseases. The obesogenic environment helps in fueling the analysis and identifies problems in various stages of reducing obesogenicity of the current setting.Using screening programs to address communicable diseases aids in developing mechanisms that ensure marginalized communities have resources allocated to them in preventive practice.

According to Laverack, professional practice while addressing NCDs offers an articulate and assertive platform that empowers practitioners to be agents of change. Baum, on the other hand, points out the inequality gap between the most and least deprived in the society in accessing health care(“BAUM 2011 on how health interventions have brought variations — Google Search,» n.d.). Behavioral change mainly focuses on lifestyle behaviors that impact on health thus being the best preventive approach. Empowerment model is useful when an individual is taking control of his health within his environment. Empowerment model would be more active in a community as it involves critical action at a personal level, unlike the behavior change which ignores factors in the social environment.

Community-based rehabilitation and the general community health for restoration work together for a common goal which is the prevention of diseases for all including the disabled people. This is achieved by providing supportive, preventive health care to prevent illness (Khasnabis et al., 2010).

Proper self-management has been used to limit effects of a condition in a person. This involves a combined team effort from patients, families, community and medical physicians. An example of proper management includes patient home care of terminally ill patients. Caring for such patients needs combined effort from all stakeholders to overcome the complexity of the situation.

The bottom-down approach allows people to be prepared in case of emergencies through providing prior knowledge to an emergency before it strikes. It is an appropriate approach especially when disasters can be predicted and are unstoppable. Providing relevant information is crucial for people to be better prepared (“More lives saved with bottom-up approach to disaster relief,” 2014). Whereas a top-down approach is acceptable in a national security disaster that requires top level security. The community should be involved in all procedures to be better prepared in times of disasters.

Community involvement can be achieved through various steps including understanding community needs and generating public interest in emergency preparedness.


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Cole, B. L., & Fielding, J. E. (2007). Health Impact Assessment: A Tool to Help Policy Makers Understand Health Beyond Health Care. Annual Review of Public Health, 28(1), 393–412.

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Khasnabis, C., Motsch, K. H., Achu, K., Jubah, K. A., Brodtkorb, S., Chervin, P., … Lander, T. (2010). Prevention. World Health Organization. Retrieved from

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Preventing and treating ill health (AIHW). (n.d.). Retrieved August 17, 2017, from about:reader?

primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health. (n.d.). Retrieved August 17, 2017, from

Strengths and Weaknesses | a2-level-level-revision, psychology, approaches-psychology, social-psychology, strengths-and-weaknesses | Revision World. (n.d.). Retrieved August 17, 2017, from

The Impact of Resilience on Health Outcomes. (2017, February 21). Retrieved August 17, 2017, from

WHO | Maternal mortality. (n.d.). Retrieved August 17, 2017, from