Greenhouse gas emisions Proposel

  • Category:
    Other
  • Document type:
    Research Proposal
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    8
  • Words:
    5583

20GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS PROPOSAL

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Proposal

ABSTRACT

The project analyzes the greenhouse gas emissions of multi-transport services. The impact of transportation on climate change and greenhouse gas emissions has not been fully considered and evaluated to understand how it propels the emissions (Yamin, 2012). Thus, the project will review how different transportation services boost the greenhouse gasses while transporting a parcel locally and internationally. That is; the research evaluates the usage of regular and express delivery modes while transporting a parcel from destination A to B. The regular mode of delivery to be used is the truck while express uses the plane for its delivery. The two delivery modes are GHG emitters but differ in many ways as the research will show. The environmental costs of air transportation among other modes of transportation are not thoroughly identified to effectively assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the research project will evaluate the cost of greenhouse gas emissions of different transits to facilitate the accurate accounting and strategies to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions.

The project will present literature review data regarding the greenhouse gas emissions by different transit modes and propose an experiment using an electronic tracker to determine the greenhouse gas emitted by transporting a parcel from Melbourne to Pennsylvania (destination A to B) using regular and express modes of transport. The greenhouse gas emitted is reliant on different factors as the literature presents. Thus, each mode of transport will be analyzed differently to identify the greenhouse gas released while justifying and proposing the necessity of conducting the experiment to evidence the theoretical information provided in this research.

Keywords:

Transport, Multi-modal Logistics, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Regular delivery, Express delivery

TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover page …………………………………………………………………………….. 1

Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………… 2

Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………… 3

Background Research ………………………………………………………………….. 4

Literature Review ………………………………………………………………………. 5

Multi-Services Transprtation Greenhouse Gas Emissions ……………………… 6

Comparison of the GHG Emissions between Regular and Express Delivery …. 8

Warehouses (Forklift) And Cranes …………………………………………….. 8

On-Road Transportation GHG Emissions …………………………………….. 8

Aircraft (International / Domestic) GHG Emissions …………………………… 9

Freight Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions …………………………….. 9

Sea Freight GHG Emissions ……………………………………………………. 10

Strategies to Reduce Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions ……………………… 11

A Comparison of the GHG Emissions between Regular and Express Delivery ………… 13

Research Gap ……………………………………………………………………………. 13

Project Objectives ……………………………………………………………………….. 14

Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

Expected Outcomes ……………………………………………………………………… 14

Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………… 15

Risk Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………… 16

Project Plan ………………………………………………………………………………… 16

References …………………………………………………………………………………. 17

Background of Research

The greenhouse gas emissions refer to the gasses that trap heat in the atmosphere of the earth. The greenhouse gasses comprise of carbon dioxide, perfluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, and methane among others. The transportation industry is responsible for the highest energy use where on-road transportation accounts for about three-quarters of the total energy (Kahn, et al., 2007). Freight transportation has high demand based on the dollars used in the market and tons of goods moved and miles traveled (Grenzeback, et al., 2013). Thus, the freight transportation also releases high GHG emissions.

The research is a proposal of the ways that can be used to reduce the emissions while presenting the dangers and how the transportation industry is responsible for the greenhouse gas emissions. The transportation industry is vast; thus, the research focuses on the GHG emissions between regular and express delivery modes of transportation. It has been stated over the years that greenhouse gas emissions are a major challenge to the environment since they promote climate change that threatens the planet in all levels (Maroto-Valer, et al., 2012). Thus, the research will show how and the amount of greenhouse gas that can be emitted while transporting a parcel using regular and express delivery modes. The regular delivery modes to be considered is the truck while the express mode of delivery is the plane.

The research will propose the ways in which this emission can be reduced. The research is focused on the greenhouse gas emissions of multi-transport services pointing on the regular and express delivery. The GHG emissions in the multi-transport services to be compared are regular (truck, on-road transportation means) and express (Plane) delivery modes. The aim of this project is to present the multi-modal greenhouse gas emissions that occur when transporting a parcel using air and road transportation means. More importantly, the research proposes the importance of experimenting by transporting a parcel to determine whether the literature is accurate, and which among the modes of transport releases much of the GHG between regular and express delivery means regarding using either trucks for regular delivery or plane for express. Consequently, it presents the need to develop new strategies that will assist in reducing the emission of greenhouse gasses mainly in the transportation sector.

LITERATURE REVIEW

It is important for the transportation sector and the world as well to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and the consumption of energy. (Grenzeback, et al., 2013), show that the consumption of energy in the transportation industry is growing highly and alternative sources of energy should be used. (ADB, 2010) demonstrates to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, the consumption of products such as petroleum has to be considered, as well as the dependence on foreign oil. Authors such as (Cristea, et al., 2011); (David, et al., 2010); (Greene, et al., 2011) among others agree that the greenhouse gas emissions are responsible for the climate change, and thus, must be handled now. The United States is highly responsible for the rising greenhouse gasses in the planet. For instance, the transportation sector in the US 28% of greenhouse gas emissions where 82% derives from the gasses emitted on highways by both, light-duty, medium and heavy-duty buses and trucks (Burbank, 2009).

Thus, the literature review will demonstrate the greenhouse gas emissions of multi-transport services while showing how on-road transportation is responsible for the highest GHG emissions. More importantly, it will focus on showing the GHG emissions between regular and express delivery regards to the main transport vehicle they used (Truck and Plane).

Currently, the demand for passenger and freight transportation lingers to grow (Kahn, et al., 2007). Thus, it is common that the greenhouse gas emissions will continue to propel in the planet. According to the graph below, transportation is the second main source of greenhouse gas emissions after the electric power industry (Bauer, et al., 2010). More importantly, (Bauer, et al., 2010, 531) also shows that the transportation industry is among the biggest sources of GHG with a 93% share by 2007. Greenhouse gas emisions Proposel

Figure 1: GHG Emissions from 1990 to 2010 (Bauer, et al., 2010)

The transportation of parcels, internationally and locally besides the production of the products, generates and boosts greenhouse gas emissions (Cristea, et al., 2011, 2). The greenhouse gas emissions grow fast when dealing with international transportation when compared to local transportations of parcels. When transporting parcels, the greenhouse gas emissions are dependent on factors such as weight transported beside the fuel used (Bauer, et al., 2010, 535). Thus, trucks, planes, ships and others have different greenhouse gas emissions (Cristea, et al., 2011, 4). The emissions are calculated using several tactics such as the consumption of fuel. For instance, the ITF stipulates that the “top-down” approach is the most appropriate for calculating the transportation GHG emissions. It is the process of calculating the flow of the quantity of services from different modes of transport through multiplying the GHG emissions per unit of services. ETODG is denoted as the GHG emission of transporting a parcel (Cristea, et al., 2011, 6). V = value of the transportation flow, while WV = weight to Value ratio. The quantity share in the flow is perceived as QSModg.

D= distance

E= GHG emission of the mode of transport

Thus, the equation for finding the GHG emissions of transportation modes is

Vodg * WVog * QSModg * Dod * Em

The result obtained is multiplied by the distance traveled, giving a common unit of the GHG emission released by transporting the set parcel.

Multi-Services Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions

According to the pie chart below, the light duty vehicles emit the highest level of GHG. (European Commission, 2016) also, supports that the light-duty vehicles among other on-road transportation vehicles are the highest emitters of GHG. For instance, in 2006 according to the above chart they produced 58.7% of the total transportation greenhouse gas emissions. It is followed by Freight trucks ar 19.2% and aircraft where at domestic level it produced 8.2% and 3.4% for international services (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010, 2-7). Thus, the project will analyze the emissions of transporting a parcel using light duty vehicles, freight trucks, and aircraft services.

Greenhouse gas emisions Proposel 1Figure 2: GHG Emissions in the Transport Industry (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010, 2-7)

It is important that the transportation greenhouse gas emissions are reduced. The reduction will assist in mitigating the global warming impacts (Maroto-Valer, et al., 2012). The transportation greenhouse gas emissions influence the air quality and other environmental challenges such as transportations costs among others (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010, 1). The greenhouse gasses attained from the transportation sector include carbon dioxide, methane, HFC, and nitrous oxide. In the U.S. CO2 accounts for 955 tons of the emissions solely from the transportation industry. On-road emissions in 2006 accounted for 79% of the total transportation emissions (Burbank, 2009). Light duty transportation modes accounted for 59%, 19% was from freight trucks while 12% was from international and domestic commercial aircraft. 10% of the greenhouse gasses was from other transportation services (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010, 3).
According to (David, et al., 2010) the greenhouse gas emissions can
be attained through a simple formula such as

Transportation sector GHG emissions = A * Si * Li * Fij where

A = total activity of the transportation sector

Si = total activity of the subsector

Ii = total energy intensity in each subsector

Fij == fuel type carbon intensity used in each subsector:

In Fij, i = mode of transportation, j = type of fuel

Freight Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The impacts of freight transportation are analyzed and perceived through the GHG emissions released to the atmosphere. The transportation process involves shipping a parcel using two different modes of transportation or more, prior to reaching its destination. The changes are mainly developed to reduce the GHG emissions. The emissions are reduced through minimized travel time for a parcel and other related costs of transporting (Bauer, et al., 2010, 531). Thus, it may include transportation modes such as truck, rail, air or ships among others. Freight transportation in the U.S of trucks and buses is responsible for about 17.5% of the total CO2 GHG emissions among other gasses. Freight transportation has always been a major source of GHG as a major energy consumer due to the demand of freight reliability and increases in speed. The more efficient they grow, the more energy they require, and thus, the more GHGis released.

Warehouses (Forklift) And Cranes

Forklifts and cranes emit GHG but not as high as other regular and express delivery modes. The GHG emissions derive from
(Fichtinger, et al., 2015) cooling, heating, lighting and air conditioning. The warehouse GHG emissions can be calculated through the energy consumed to perform this tasks to identify the GHG emission of storing a parcel. The calculation methods have been provided by (Kahn, et al., 2007); (Schmied & Knorr, 2012); and (Nugroho & Zusman, 2015).

Forklifts and cranes emit adverse GHG emissions such as CO among others.
(Rimmer & Yarnell, 2009), show that the GHG have affected workers in warehouses significantly such as acute CO poisonousness. The forklift and cranes GHG emissions can be reduced by using electric forklifts, which ease the battery stress leading to reduced emissions (Maxwell Technologies, 2016).

On-Road Freight Transportation GHG Emissions

On-road transportation comprises of numerous modes of transportation such as trains, trucks, and cars. According to the chart above, they make up for over 50% of the total GHG emissions. According to Greene, Baker, & Plotkin (2011) on-road transportation is responsible for consuming the most energy that releases GHG highly in the transportation sector (IEA (2), 2015, 11). Greene, Baker, & Plotkin (2011) propose that increasing the efficiency of on-road transportation modes through using new technologies to improve the consumption of fuel will help reduce these GHG emission levels. However, purchasing of on-road transportation modes has become cost-expensive and fuel as well, which leads to the increase of numbers of the passenger, personal cars and trucks among others on-road (European Commission, 2016). Thus, the release of GHG grows steadily. The future is already threatened, and unless alternatives are implemented today at an earlier date, in the future it will be too late (Wang, et al., (2012). The environment and atmosphere will already be destroyed; it is under threat today, and the threat lingers to grow and worsen.

The o-road freight emissios can be calculated using a logistics distribution network. That is; G = (V, E)

V = set of nodes, 0 = distribution centre. Others show retailers.

E = set of arcs

E.g. = distance travelled, speed, fuel cost/consumed, usage of the truck time, retailer demand, capacity of the truck, and the price of carbon per unit.

Consequently, the amount of GHG emitted by the truck is attained (Li, et al., 2015).

Aircraft (Freight) (International / Domestic) GHG Emissions

Aircrafts and marine transportation are experiencing high demand constantly. They are responsible for about 5% of the total GHG emissions (David, et al., 2010). Aircrafts are used for services such as military use, recreational or commercial usage. The usage of the aircrafts in either way leads to the GHG emissions, which are among the largest GHG emissions in the transportation industry. The industry uses petroleum as the main source of fuel for its activities. The main type of petroleum is the kerosene-type jet fuel where 99% of all aircrafts consume it. International transportation has led to an increase of 52% GHG emissions. In 1990, the CO2 emitted was at 255.4tons while by 2005, it had emitted about 388.8 GHG tons of CO2 releases (David, et al., 2010). In the U.S. air transportation is responsible for about 10% of the total GHG transportation emissions (Greene, et al., 2011).

According to the (Schmied & Knorr, 2012), the GHG emissions can be calculated using energy consumed or distance traveled. Thus, for the plane delivering the parcel the energy consumed and distance travelled will assist in presenting the GHG emission from the transportation. In terms of energy consumed, the GHG emission is linked to the energy emissions factors such as the transport service, average values for the delivery, and fleet values used.

The distance method is attained through multiplying the weight delivered and distance transported. The value attained are then linked to the energy consumed giving an outline of the GHG released.

Fuel (kerosene) consumed by aircraft is dependent on the type of aircraft. The consumption is also dependent on the distance traveled. A parcel is delivered either through a cargo plane or passenger plane.

Using the cargo plane, the value of passenger and luggage fuel consumed is dependent on assuming that all equal to 100kg per head and luggage (Schmied & Knorr, 2012, 47).

The value of the parcel’s weight is deducted from the value of the passenger.

Conequently, the fuel consumed by the parcel is attained through the below formula:

The fuel consumed is attained by multiplying the keroene consumption by weight of the parcel and the flight distance.

Distance = calculated on the circle distance = shortest connection between two points (destination points)

= flight with inner stops or deviations to make do not follow a straight line.

Thus, distance to all stops is calculated (Schmied & Knorr, 2012, 47).

Fuel consumption = weight (kg) of parcel * kerosene consumed (mj/l) * distance (Schmied & Knorr, 2012, 48).

Sea Freight GHG Emissions

Sea transportation is also titled to as marine transportation. The sea freight consumes a fuel type also linked to the high emission of greenhouse gasses. That is; they consume a mixture of distillate fuel commonly known as diesel and residual fuel oil. Domestically, sea transportation uses diesel while internationally, they use residual fuel predominantly. The consumption of fuel internationally for sea is and air as well is titled bunker fuels. The domestic consumption and emissions of GHG is stable, while internationally it lingers to grow. The consumption is linked to reduced levels of shipping and transportation using this services domestically. However, as transportation using this services internationally lingers to grow, the consumption of fuel increases leading to the increasing emission of the GHG gasses. By 2005, the domestic GHG emissions in the world totaled to 651.0 metric tons of CO2. Internationally, they summed to 357.9 tons while in 2005 the total had grown to 551.6 tons (David, et al., 2010). According to the graph below, the growth of greenhouse gas emissions has grown steadily and continues to grow. It leads to a more clear threat to the planet today. The demand for fuel today and transportation are growing rapidly and hurting the developing world largely since it steers to the increase of fuels with high levels of GHG gasses (Greene, et al., 2011). Thus, given the increase from 1990 to 2005, it is clear that the emissions of Carbon today are higher or double what it used to be in 2005.

Greenhouse gas emisions Proposel 2

Figure 3: GHG Emissions from Aircrafts and Ships (David, et al., 2010)

Strategies to Reduce Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions

One of the main strategies to reduce transportation emissions is the introduction of low carbon fuels. Petroleum fuels are highly consumed for transportation. Thus, introducing low carbon fuels and other alternative means of energy for transportation would assist in reducing the emissions. Alternative fuels may include fuels such as ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen among others. Such alternative fuels have proved effective in reducing the emissions though advances in this process could be applied for improved reduction of the carbon fuels in transportation services. For instance, in the future, the usage of fuel cells would effectively reduce the emissions (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010, 4).

Nugroho & Zusman (2015), propose the usage of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)and Green Climate Fund (GCF) as strategies that may assist reduce the GHG emissions from the transportation industry. The CDM and GCF are focused on reducing consumption of fuel while increasing the quality of the air. That is; it involves using vehicles that do use less fuel leading to cleaner air. However, the two objectives are still under review to determine if they should be embraced. If embraced they would eliminate the issue of GHG emissions in the industry altogether.

Carbon emission trading mechanism is also demonstrated as a strategy that would assist in reducing the vehicle CO2 emissions (Li, et al., 2015). Some countries have already embraced this strategy and seem to have positive outcomes. It is the process that involves using a cap to emit CO2. Thus, as businesses and vehicles purchase the cap, their CO2 pollution is controlled as they are not allowed to emit more than the cap allows.

More importantly, internationally, plans such as the Kyoto Protocol Framework will assist in reaching the goal of reducing the GHG emissions in the industry. Courtiers should adopt to such strategies to help meet the international goal (IEA (2), 2015).

The Epress delivery tranportation mode. Using the express delivery mode lower costs and increase profit with effective shipments, and yet its GHG emission are lower compared to the regular mode a perceived through the profits made by FedEX Express (FedEX, 2015). More importantly, the Australian Post of the year 2015 presents that using express delivery modes is more cost effective and efficient compared to the usage of regular modes. That is; while using the regular modes, more GHG is emitted, which increases their responsibility to the environment, in terms of costs among others (Australia Post, 2015). However, according to the (Australia Post, 2015), embracing today’s technology makes delivery cheaper and reduces the GHG emissions of transporting a parcel. Thus, by embracing ecommerce, the transportation industry GHG may be highly reduced.

Increasing vehicle fuel economy would also assist reduce the transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This refers to the process of using the advanced engine and transmission emissions, and the aerodynamics of the transportation services. Such advances would promote the use of less fuel, leading to reduced transportation GHG emissions as (Li, et al., 2015) also supports through CDM ad GCF. Other advances such as hydrogen fuel cells when used in transportation services will lead to net cost savings (Chan, et al., 2010, 593). The main challenge to such technology been employed is the limited penetration of the market.

Improving the transportation system efficiency refers to the process of improving the operation, construction and design of transportation networks. For instance, improvements may be in systems such as lowering the national highways speed limits. Lowering the speed limit on the highways would lead to a moderated emission of GHG. Other improvements would occur on systems such as the traffic management by controlling demand, where it leads to the decreased fuel consumption. Consequently, with reduced congestion, the consumption of fuel is reduced leading to a reduction in the GHG emissions (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010, 5).

Reducing the carbon-intensive travel activity is the process of reducing on-road traveling while shifting the traveling to more efficient options such as increasing motor fuel tax would steer to reduced GHG emissions. Improvement of urban transit services, land use, and improvement of pedestrian and bicycle improvements would lead to moderate reductions of the GHG emissions.

A Comparison of the GHG Emissions between Regular and Express Delivery

Regular delivery means of transport include the on-road and freight means of transportations while express delivery means modes such as air or ship transportation. Thus, the regular mode of transportation to be compared is the usage of the truck when delivering parcels while the express delivery means to be analyzed is the usage of plane freight.

Trucks are perceived as either light or heavy duty. According to (Kahn, et al., 2007, 328), the energy consumption of trucks in 2000, was at 12.48 MJ/L for heavy trucks and 6.77MJ/L for light trucks. The planes consumption of energy in the same year was at 8.95MJ/L. Thus, in comparing the energy consumption of trucks and planes, the trucks consumed more energy. Additionally, the regular transportation of trucks and rail accounted for about 27% of energy usage in the transportation industry in 2006. However, the trucks according to (IEA, 2009, 269) consumed 90% of the 27%. More importantly, the energy consumption by heavy and medium freight trucks is highest compared to other modes such as rail and light commercial vehicles (IEA, 2009, 274). The more energy consumed in the market leads to the high emission of the CO2 among other GHG gasses. According to the (Australian Aviation, 2015, 1), the aviation industry has grown highly where services such as Qantas is increasing its parcel delivering fleets. Trucks are part of the on-road transportation sector besides been regular delivery modes of transportation.

Research Gap

  1. The transport industry is highly accountable for the highest GHG emissions (Wang, et al., 2012). The research will present through critical evaluation, which between regular and express delivery modes are high emitters of GHG.

  2. The research demonstrates, which among regular and express delivery mode has better quality service delivery for the economy, environment and other sectors involved. (Bauer, et al., 2010), supports that the freight transportation and on-road means of transportation are highly expensive for the environment. Given the rising demand for transportation efficiency, speed and consumption of fuel, it will be challenging to attain the expected GHG emissions levels when dealing with global warming and providing quality services.

  3. The central gap in this proposal is how the transportation industry is responsible for a higher emission level of GHG while compared to other industries (David, et al., 2010). Thus, the literature presents how GHG emissions in the transport industry mainly regular vs. express delivery systems have been growing and how they boost the global warming process (Greene, et al., 2011).

Project Objectives

    1. The research is a combination of theoretical analysis and experiential results.

    2. The study is based on observation of current impacts of GHG emissions from the transport industry that boost the global warming process around the world. That is; by comparing regular and express means of parcel delivery, the GHG emissions in the transport industry are perceived.

    3. Thus, the study will present the possible strategies that would assist in slowing the process of global warming by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. That is; both regular and express delivery means release high GHG that must be handled.

    4. The exploration aims to present how the greenhouse gasses from multi-transport services lead to a high level of GHG in the atmosphere and promote the global warming process by aiding in entrapping of gasses.

    5. The research tries to observe the intensity and effect of the GHG emissions from multi-transport services mainly trucks and planes and how they can be managed by using alternative services to the planet.

    Research Questions

    1. Trucks as regular modes of transport are considered high GHG emitters, what factors lead to this conclusion?

    2. What is the difference that brand the regular delivery mode the highest GHG emitters compared to the express delivery modes (plane)?

    3. What are the environmental impacts of the entire GHG emission from the transportation industry? How can they be managed?

    Expected Outcomes:

    The anticipated results include the probability of using alternative fuels and technology to assist in reducing energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gasses. The main outcome would be perceived after several years or 6 months, where when calculating the GHG emitted per sector, it should be reduced. Thus, the expected outcomes that would be linked to the reduction of GHG is an increase in the alternative markets of fuels such as hydrogen. That is; when the consumption of the alternative fuels increases, it would stipulate less emission of GHG.

    On the other hand, the development of advanced technology in developing propulsion engines that are more efficient, and fast. Thus, in reducing, the time spent transporting a parcel or passengers; the amount of GHG released is lowered. That is; the systems will employ a design that reduces the carbon intensity released to the atmosphere (David, et al., 2010).

    An increase in the pricing of other fuels such as kerosene, diesel, and other petroleum, would push individuals to alternate to the alternative fuels. Thus, the emissions of the GHG in the transportation industry would show an advancement in handling the issue.

    Methodology

    1. The experiment begins by purchasing the GPS tracker to be linked to the parcel that will be transported using the trucks and the planes. That is; regular vs. express means of parcel delivery.

    2. The data to be collected for accurate measuring includes: estimating the activity data of both the truck and plane used. The data is then multiplied by its emission factor providing the GHG emission of the transport mode used.

    3. In term of the truck, the activity data derive from natural gas usage while for the plane it I the electricity consumed. For the plane, the cost per mile provides an estimated accurate data activity of the electricity consumed.

    4. On the other hand, for the truck, the activity data is attained by identifying the miles traveled, and multiplying them by the fuel consumed in term of dollars spent. According to (Nugroho & Zusman, 2015, 54), fuel efficiency and consumption are effective ways of calculating the GHG emissions from the transport industry. The GHG emissions will be reported in tonnes.

    5. Using the methods of GHG emission calculation, the GHG emission from the truck and the plane while transporting the parcel will be calculated using fuel and electricity consumed by both respectively. Thus, the emission between the truck and the plane will be attained.

    6. Additional data to be included is the limitations when conducting the experiment, how the results attained were verified and any discrepancies that may have been experienced (BIER, 2010).

    7. The data attained will be linked to the literature review for proof on the emission of GHG between the regular and express delivery modes. Then, data compares the results of the existing research and experiment to determine the impact of multi-transport GHG emissions to the planet specifically regular and express modes of transport.

    Risk Analysis

    • The first challenge that the research faces is a lack of sufficient funds to see the experiment through to attain accurate results of the GHG emissions from the different modes of transport when transporting the same weight product. To determine the most pollute-able means of transport and relate it to the theoretical evidence, sufficient funds for each transport must be availed.

    • Time is also a challenge; it will be challenging to travel to the destination for the four different modes. Thus, I will use the information from the tracker and GPS to calculate distances, stationary time, and other characteristics to attain the appropriate recordings. Thus, the probability of error is available.

    • I have sufficient information regarding the GHG emissions from the multi-transport services and its impacts on the environment. Thus, it will be challenging to notice information and personal biases that may influence the results I record and perceive during the experiment.

    Project Plan:

    Greenhouse gas emisions Proposel 3

    References

    ADB, 2010. Reducing Carbon Emissions from Transport Projects. Evaluation Knowledge Brief: ADB, pp. 1-107.

    Australia Post, 2015. Deliverig eCommerce: Everyone, Everywhere, Everyday. Australia Post. Annual Report 2015, pp. 1 — 128.

    Australian Aviation, 2015. Qantas Establishes Dedicated Freighter Fleet for Australia Post. Australian Aviation, pp. 1-1.

    Bauer, J., Bektas, T. & Crainic, 2010. Minimizing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Intermodal Freight Transport: An Application to Rail Service Design. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 61(3), pp. 530 — 542.

    BIER, 2010. Beverage Industry Sector Guidance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting. Beverage Industry Environmental Roundtable , pp. 1 — 71.

    Burbank, J. C., 2009. Special Report 299: Reducing Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Consumption. Research Agenda. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) AND Energy Mitigation for the Transportation Sector. Recommended Research and Evaluation Program, pp. 1-49.

    Chan, C.-C., Bouscayrol, A. & Chen, K., 2010. Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel-Cell Vehicles: Architectures and Modelling. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 59(2), pp. 589 — 598.

    Cristea, A., Hummels, D., Puzzello, L. & Avetisyan, M., 2011. Trade and the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from International Freight Transport. pdf, pp. 1- 46.

    David, M. L., Gregory, G. & David, G., 2010. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies. ITS UC Davis: Institute of Transportation Studies, pp. 1 — 56.

    European Commission, 2016. Climate Action: Road transport: Reducing CO2 emissions from vehicles. Available at:
    [Online] http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/vehicles/index_en.htm [Accessed 1 8 2016].

    FedEX, 2015. Decisive Actions on Many Fronts during FY15 are Transforming FedEX, Positioning the Company to Deliver Log-term Shareowner Value in FY16 and Beyong. FedEx: A transformative year. , pp. 1 — 85.

    Fichtinger, J., Ries, M. J., Grosse, H. E. & Baker, P., 2015. Assessing the environmental impact of integrated inventory and warehouse management. International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 170, pp. 717 -729.

    Greene, L. D., Baker, H. H. & Plotkin, E. S., 2011. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S Transportation. Pew Center on Global Climate Change, pp. 1 — 95.

    Grenzeback, L. R. et al., 2013. Demand: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy Efficient Scenarios for Low-Carbon Future. Transportation Energy Futures Series. U.S Department of Energy. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, pp. 1 — 77.

    IEA (2), 2015. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Highlights. IEA Statistics, pp. 7 — 138.

    IEA, 2009. Transport, Energy, and CO2. International Energy Agency, IEA, pp. 1 — 418.

    Kahn, R. S. et al., 2007. Transport and Its Infrastructure. In: In Climate Changr 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 325 — 380.

    Li, J., Lu, Q. & Fu, P., 2015. Carbon Footprint Management of Road Freight Trasport Under the Carbon Emission Trading Mechanism. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, pp. 1 — 13.

    Maroto-Valer, M. M., Song, C. & Soong, Y., 2012. Environmental Challenges and Greenhouse Gas Control for Fossil Fuel Utilization in the 21st Century. NY: Springer Science & Business Media.

    Maxwell Technologies, 2016. Forklifts & Cranes: Enabling Energy’s Future. Available at:
    [Online] http://www.maxwell.com/solutions/transportation/forklifts-cranes [Accessed 9 8 2016].

    Nugroho, B. S. & Zusman, E., 2015. Estimating Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paratrasit in Bandung, Indoesia: Reducing the Transaction costs of generatig conservative emissions baselines. Natural Resources Forum, Volume 39, pp. 53 — 63.

    Nugroho, S. B. & Zusman, E., 2015. Estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paratransit in Bandung, Indonesia: Reducing the transaction costs of generating conservative emissions baselines. Natural Resources Forum , Volume 39, pp. 53-63.

    Rimmer, W. T. & Yarnell, H. S., 2009. Controlling Forklifts’ Exhaust Emissions. Occupational Health & Safety, pp. 1-7.

    Rosa, E., 2012. Human drivers of national greenhouse-gas emissions. Nature Climate Change Review, Volume 2, pp. 581-586.

    Schmied, M. & Knorr, W., 2012. Calculating GHG emissions for freight forwarding and logistics services in accordance with EN 16258. Federal Ministry for the Environment Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, pp. 1-63.

    U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010. Transportation’s Role in Reducing U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Volume 1: Synthesis Report. Report to Congress, 1(1), pp. 1- 110.

    Wang, M. et al., 2012. Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Ethanol from Corn, Sugarcane and Cellulosic Biomacc for US Use. Environmental Research Letters, 7(4), pp. 1-14.

    Yamin, F., 2012. Climate Change and Carbon Markets. New York: Routledge.