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  • Grazing management is best done with the knowledge of the conditions of the soil and the climatic conditions of an area. These two factors determine how the fields will be managed since they control the health of the pastures. Paraguay has both exotic and indigenous pastures which are used as feed for animals. Both these pastures depend on much water and fertile soils. However the native grass can grow with arid conditions and soils with less fertility. Native pastures are more preferred to the introduced pastures because they are more natural and do well without much management practices. However the introduced grasses tend to be high in nutrients. In this essay the land management practices used on grazing land will be discussed, the availability of grass and grains and the type of grass present in Paraguay.

Grazing management is best done with the knowledge of the conditions of the soil and the climatic conditions of an area. These two factors determine how the fields will be managed since they control the health of the pastures. Paraguay has both exotic and indigenous pastures which are used as feed for animals. Both these pastures depend on much water and fertile soils. However the native grass can grow with arid conditions and soils with less fertility. Native pastures are more preferred to the introduced pastures because they are more natural and do well without much management practices. However the introduced grasses tend to be high in nutrients. In this essay the land management practices used on grazing land will be discussed, the availability of grass and grains and the type of grass present in Paraguay. Example

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Best grazing land management 2

Abstract

Grazing management is best done with the knowledge of the conditions of the soil and the climatic conditions of an area. These two factors determine how the fields will be managed since they control the health of the pastures. Paraguay has both exotic and indigenous pastures which are used as feed for animals. Both these pastures depend on much water and fertile soils. However the native grass can grow with arid conditions and soils with less fertility. Native pastures are more preferred to the introduced pastures because they are more natural and do well without much management practices. However the introduced grasses tend to be high in nutrients. In this essay the land management practices used on grazing land will be discussed, the availability of grass and grains and the type of grass present in Paraguay.

Introduction

Paraguay a country in South America has very deep soils and reliable rainfall through out the year. The soils in the Eastern part of the country are deep but sandy and red in color. They lack the essential plant nutrient requirements such as nitrogen. The Paraná Plateau has fertile soils formed from basaltic lava. Grass depends on a number of land management practices for it to perform in the best way possible. Such practices aim at controlling soil fertility and water retained in the soils for proper growth of the grass. Both the native and introduced grasses do well in this country and both of them are used as feed for animals. The health of grass depends on the fertility of the soils, temperature, rainfall and other factors that make up the climate. Difference in seasons also affects the growth of pasture. The land management practices used on gazing land will be discussed in this essay alongside the issues revolving around the use of these grasses for feeding animals Ramírez and Laneri (1989).

There are both introduced and native pastures which have different requirements as far as the availability of water and soil conditions are concerned. Native grass has been known to exist in the country for many years. This has made it more adapted to the climatic conditions and soils of the country. It does fairly well in unfavorable climate and infertile soils. Since the climate and soils differ depending on the part of the country it follows that various grass types are endemic to different conditions. Some places are well watered and have grass with high water requirements. Introduced grasses do well when the soils and the climate are good Hill and Harned (1990).

When things change they are affected and do not perform very well. These grasses are less productive in areas where soils have lesser plant nutrients especially when coupled with less rainfall. The native pastures are most used since they are easily available when compared to the introduced pastures. They are the most efficient since animal reproduction and production has depended on them for a long time. However the introduced pastures have higher levels of nutrients and are therefore the most efficient. Beef animals easily fatten and develop soft meat which is preferred by farmers when fed on introduced grass. Dairy animals have been found to increase the amount of milk produced when fed on introduced grass Ramírez and Laneri (1989).

As much as grass is abundant the amount of grains for feeding livestock continues to increase as alternative feed. Feeding cattle on grains has however been a practice in this nation for some time now. The availability of grass makes it a cheap feed for animals when compared to grains. Grains must be cultivated with more costs and resources pumped into their production. The percentage of grass being used is higher compared to that of grains in the whole country. More so grains are mostly used in times of drought when grass is not abundant. Grains account for 10% while grass accounts for 90% of feed for livestock Ramírez and Laneri (1989).

Grains tend to cost more when compared to grass and therefore are not very cost effective when used for as feed for beef and dairy cattle. This is so because they require a lot of attention, labor and resources during cultivation. Grass is more cheap to produce and therefore can be more cost effective. It has been proven through market research that customers prefer beef from grain fed animals. This kind is said to be tastier and more nutritious. Grass fed animals are not the best when it comes to beef and therefore customers do not much of it. As a result beef from grain fed animals is usually on high demand when compared to that from grass fed animals
Stosiek Glatzle and Schultze-Kraft (1997).

In order to manage their lands and their pasture well farmers leave strips of forested or bush land on the side of the prevailing wind perpendicular to the wind for protection. This bush strip is normally given a width of 100m in the East –West orientation and also around the land. This bush helps to reduce the force of wind which can destroy vegetation on the land. Preservation of water areas and sources is also important. It is done by leaving bush borders around the land with a width of 100m around every permanent or temporary water body. They reduce water pollution and other destruction. These water bodies included lagoons, water camps and rivers Hacker, Glatzle and Vanni (1996).

Conclusion

In this essay a number of issues surrounding grazing land management in Paraguay have been examined. Keeping cattle in Paraguay is an important economic activity. Animals are fed on both native and introduced pasture. Native pasture is prevalent since it is endemic to the soils and climate of the country. Grains are also used to feed livestock. Beef cattle fed on grains have been found to produce high quality beef which is preferred by customers than the grass fed cattle. Pastures and water bodies are managed and conserved by strips of bush land being left around them. These are meant to reduce the speed of wind and depletion of water sources respectively.

Bibliography

Hill, C.L., and Harned, D.A., 1990 The effects of agricultural land-management practices on vegetation 1989, p. 36-38.

. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C.Agricultural R&D in Paraguay: Policy, Investments, and Institutional ProfileBeintema, N.M., P. Zambrano, M. Nuñez, and P.G. Pardey (2000):

Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, pp. 9 — 18Paraguay: Ecological Essays. J.R. Gorham (ed.). InBertoni, G.T. and J.R. Gorham (1973): The Geography of Paraguay.

. DSE Feldafing, pp. 26-49Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). InFatecha, A. (1989): Present and potential area for agricultural use in the Arid Chaco of Paraguay.

. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 39 — 60.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays J.R. Gorham (edInGorham, J.R. (1973): The Paraguayan Chaco and Its Rainfall.

30, 273 — 281Tropical GrasslandsHacker, J.B., A. Glatzle and R. Vanni (1996): Paraguay — a potential source of new pasture legumes for the subtropics.

. DSE Feldafing, pp. 139-148Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). InRamírez, E.G. and J.L. Laneri (1989): Fodder and Feeding of Cattle in the Paraguayan Chaco.

. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 33 — 38Paraguay: Ecological Essays J.R. Gorham (ed.). InSáchez, T.F. (1973): The climate of Paraguay.

, Winnipeg and Saskatoon, Canada, 29-7 — 29-8 International Grassland CongressthProc. XVIIIStosiek, D., A. Glatzle and R. Schultze-Kraft (1997): Utilized Metabolizable Energy and Its Impact on the Management of Grass Pastures in the Central Chaco of Paraguay.