Globalization 13 Essay Example

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Students’ Appreciation of Arts and Intellectual Development

Climate change in the world could be attributed to the advances in industrialization in the world. The industries have emitted carbon dioxide over years until the ozone layer thinned away. The ozone layer served as the filter from the ultra violet rays from the sun as well as regulating atmospheric temperatures. The ever increasing levels of Carbon dioxide were as a result of coal mining, contaminated vehicle smokes and the smoke from burning coal. Previously, coal was considered the cheapest source of energy and was widely used. Australia has various coal deposits as its one of its natural resources (Ungar, 199 pg. 133).

Bibliography

Ungar, S 1999 ‘Is Strange Weather in the Air: A Study of US National News Coverage of Extreme Weather Events’ , Climatic Change41(2): 133–50.

Global Climate Change (Part 1): Sustainable Life (Styles)

The award winning book by Tim Flanery, The Weather Makers clearly describes the impact of climate change on the daily human activities. It is evident that rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulted in climate change in the universe. The alarming rates at which carbon dioxide discharges in the earth’s globe contributed to the extinction of particular species due to destruction of their habitats. This is because the carbon dioxide contributes to global atmospheric temperature and climate change. He noted that the rising atmospheric temperatures had eventually altered the patterns of monsoon rains in the Sahel in Africa. The changes in the pattern of these rains consequently resulted desertification of the Sahel Region. The pastoralist in this region previously depended on the oases and other fertile areas of the Sahel. With the change in climate, the herders and pastoralists have to walk longer distances to find grass. Also, the farmers experience lower yields from the fields (Tim, 2005 pg.139)

On the other hand, Tim Flannery noted in his book that global climate change in Darfur indirectly resulted in conflicts among the communities. The conflicts are mainly due to competition for the already diminishing resources. The Darfur is inhabited by the Africans who do farming and the Arabs who are characterized as herders (Tim, 2005 pg. 365). The desperation to have adequate yields for the both communities contrary to the looming effects of the climate shift led to vicious social conflicts. Tim Flannery, in his book, The Weather Makers, contradicts the global perception that the conflicts in the Darfur region are related to politics and religion. In objection, he points out that food insecurity in the region is immense and has slowly generated conflicts among communities in Darfur (Tim, 2005 pg.154).

Bibliography

FLANNERY, T. F. (2005). The weather makers: how man is changing the climate and what it means for life on Earth. New York, Atlantic Monthly Press.

Ungar, S 1995 ‘Social Scares and Global Warming: Beyond the Rio Convention’, Society and Natural Resources 8(4): 443–56.

Ungar, S 1999 ‘Is Strange Weather in the Air: A Study of US National News Coverage of Extreme Weather Events’ , Climatic Change41(2): 133–50.

Global Climate Change (Part 2): Human Welfare Impacts

Different groups of people or communities face varying degrees of the impact of changes in global climate. This is vivid globally despite that the changes in the patterns of the earth’s climate are universal. Heat waves in Europe marked the largest impact ever witnessed. The health systems in this continent were stretched beyond limit in the aim of coping with the incidence of heat related mortality and heat strokes. The heat waves in Europe in 2003 resulted in tens of thousands of deaths. During this heat wave crisis, France registered 15, 000 deaths (WHO, 2004). 70% of these deaths were attributed to those above 75 years old. Those who were most affected during this crisis were the poor, the elderly, children and infants.

Research by the United Nations has identified that individuals who are marginalized either politically, socially, culturally, and otherwise are greatly exposed to adverse effects of change in climate (Atalay, 2010 pg. 247). The United Nations reported that single parents in the upcountry, the field workers and slum dwellers are the vulnerable groups of these changes (Lloyd, 2005 pg.104). The reduction in the rainfall durations and the resultant indefinite weather patterns has major setbacks on the world at large. One such setback includes reduction of agricultural produce. The farmers are subjected to higher losses by the day due to unrewarding farming. Also, the resistance of existing farming pesticides and weeds and proliferation of new pests and weeds are attributed to lower farm output and higher market prices of food to the consumers. Consequently, malnutrition prevails in the society longer affecting more communities globally (Ungar, 1999 pg. 139).

Bibliography

Ungar, S 1995 ‘Social Scares and Global Warming: Beyond the Rio Convention’, Society and Natural Resources 8(4): 443–56.

Ungar, S 1999 ‘Is Strange Weather in the Air: A Study of US National News Coverage of Extreme Weather Events’ , Climatic Change41(2): 133–50.

Economic Dimension (Part 1): Global Financial Crisis (GFC)

As discussed earlier, the heat waves in Europe resulted in overstretching health systems so as to accommodate the high rates of heat shock incidences. The heat wave recorded US $13 billion worth of economic losses. The changes in the natural environment have direct impact on the economy of a particular state. The economic status consequently determines the cost of living and the cost of services and goods in the society. The climate changes result in evolution of previously manageable health problems and the costs of treating patients of these particular health issues (Edwards, 2007 pg. 345).

International trade takes credit for the growing national economies in comparison to the preceding nineteenth century. Rapid growth of trade and trade relations such as the G-7 promote the reductions of export trade taxes, regulations and tariffs. Globalization relies on the advances in technologies which greatly assist in advertising and transfer of reliable information in time. The rate of consumption of products of globalization increases with increasing national and international policies to ensure sustainability of globalization (Skinner, 1999 pg. 605).

Globalization of economies diffused political powers of some countries while empowering others. Regional economic forums amongst countries contribute largely to this effect. Secondly, the global political relations guided by economic powers tend to diminish the states with minor contributions. Also, the restructuring of the economy in various states correspond to financial crisis and reduced budgetary allocations that consequently impact on the public sector (Hamilton, 2007 pg. 120).

Bibliography

EDWARDS, L. 2007. How to argue with an economist reopening political debate in Australia. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Skinner, J. 1999. Review article: Globalization and the age of migration. The Editorial Board of The Sociological Review: 603-608.

Economic Dimension (Part 2): Local Impacts on Human Welfare

In the 1990s, at the peak of income inequalities, the Labor Government created social security by assuring the public of its strict adherence to every effort in preventing global development from infiltrating its worst effects into the Australian state. As the economic status of individuals multiplies, so does poverty become global and wide spread among individuals? Industrialization raised hopes for more employment before it was embraced. On the contrary, economic globalization resulted in competition among industrial workers against the decreasing job markets (Stigliz, 1998 pg. 19)

Globalization leads to increased immigration which in turn results to eroded national identity of Australia (Edwards, 2007 pg. 120). Immigration in Australia also resulted in rapid increase in economic significance attributed to temporary movements by immigrants with professional skills. The Australian government noted that most of the immigrants were individuals with adequate skills seeking employment (Skinner, 1999 pg. 605).

The rising levels of unemployment in Australia stems from the idea that industries from here tend to seek cheaper labor from the neighboring Asian countries. In addition, the technological developments tend to limit the availability of employment. Previous research showed people with computer education tend to earn higher wages as compared to others. This has resulted in competition and individualism in the Australian society. The desperation to be better than others results from the economic aspects of globalization (Water, 1995).

Bibliography

Ritze, G and Atalay, Z 2010.
Readings in globalization: key concepts and major debatesChichester, West Sussex, U.K.; Malden, MA

Skinner, J. 1999. Review article: Globalization and the age of migration. The Editorial Board of The Sociological Review: 603-608.

Waters, M. 1995. Globalization. London: Routledge.

Social Dimension (Part 1): Global Trends

Social insecurity also described as ontological insecurity occurs individual, community or national levels (Hollway, 1997, pg. 255). The cause of these social risks includes changes in political structure and economical structures as a result of globalization. The degrees at which they occur have great impact on structures of governance in national or global scenarios. According to the Human Development Report of 1994, prevailing human security is centered on the individual citizens. This refers to the freewill for mobility, social and market opportunities. Sometimes, globalization causes violent conflicts which are attributed to efforts for addressing anxiety due to economic existential (Ungar, 1999 pg. 445).

A risk society enables the scrutiny of newer technologies along scientific and public aspects. On the other hand, social anxiety includes issues of social attention towards nuclear, medical, biological and environmental issues. The common forms of society anxieties include the discovery of the ozone in 1986, the rise of breast implants and the discovery of various reproductive technologies. Risks of industrialization are unavoidable and modernization produces side effects which are subjected to a lot of scrutiny.it had been observed that science and technology have the potential to bring about economic gains as well as the production and distribution of what may be considered unsafe (Hollway, 1997 pg. 257).

Due to globalization and social heterogeneity increases along with other social anxiety and risk society aspects. Previously, societies were identified with homogeneous aspects; however, this has changed due to globalization which encourages heterogeneity and identity along religion, language and ethnicity basis. Therefore coercion in the society and national integration weaken upon group empowerment (Jefferson, 1997 pg. 258).

Bibliography

Hollway, W. and Jefferson, T. 1997 ‘The Risk Society in an Age of Anxiety: Situating Fear of Crime’, British Journal of Sociology 48(2): 255–65.

Hollway, W. and Jefferson, T. 1997 ‘The Risk Society in an Age of Anxiety: Situating Fear of Crime’, British Journal of Sociology 48(2): 255–65.

Social Dimension (Part 2): Australian Trends

The agreements that arise due to globalization such as globalization treaties, trade agreement and other political aspects are instrumental in the drifting of governments from the domestic affairs to the international affairs. The World Trade organization scrutinizes the policies of its member governments prompting them to shift away from domestic focus. Consequently, a democratic deficit arises when the state governments concentrate more on the international community (Hamilton, 2007 pg. 125).

The effect of globalization on the human services are majorly due to the fact that Australia relies on foreign capital and trade for development and to ensure services for the small population. Commonwealth member states like Australia are do not need parliament confirmation to sign treaties however, Australia ensures that the treaties it into should be in line with its domestic mandate. For this purpose, the Australian government gets the higher stake in determining governance in it state (Hamilton, 2007 pg. 243).

The rising cases of individualism in the society serve only to increase social insecurity. With higher levels of individualism, society homogeneity depreciates as identification by group factors such as ethnicity and social class thrive. It has been observed in other countries that differences in ideals, culture and religion have great impact in the civil wars in other countries. Also, due to economic inequality the unfair distribution of economic resources contributes to rising economic injustices. As a result the wide gap between the rich and the poor widens further due to lack of oneness (Stiglitz, 1998 pg. 154).

Bibliography

HAMILTON, C. (2007). Scorcher: the dirty politics of climate change. Melbourne, Black Inc. Agenda.

Kymlicka, W. 1995. Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Stiglitz, Joseph Spring 1998 Distinguished Lecture on Economics in Government: The Private Uses of Public Interests: Incentives and Institutions The Journal of Economic Perspectives, V12 N2. pp. 3-22

Cultural Dimension (part 2): Australian Trends

One of the many states that promote multiculturalism in the world is Australia. In order to address need and rights of the numerous immigrants in Australia, multiculturalism defined the growing ethno cultural diversities represented in the state. Australian Law Reform Commission noted that disparate standards in the professional practice enhance uniformity. Policies around multiculturalism were drafted in order to promote assimilation, social justice, integration, nation building and social cohesion (Beck, 1995 pg. 83).

One of the vital aspects for race and cultural associations in every country is the association and treatment of the native people. The Australian human rights commission (AHRC) with guidance from the Bill of Rights addresses the rights of both the indigenous and immigrant communities in the aim of promoting multiculturalism. Al Grassby, a minister for Immigration gave a speech in the year 1973 entitled a Multi-Cultural Society for the Future which was majorly about settlement and welfare of the immigrants and the social cultural policies of Australia. This marked the initiation of multiculturalism in Australia. The Australian plays a vital role since time immemorial to ensure social integration amongst its citizens (Hamilton, 2007 pg.246)

Globally, human rights have been ineptly addressed. The rise of communication channels that transfer information over long distances and the increasing power of the media have resulted in better and more vocal demand for human rights for the minority and immigrants in every country. Also, education and awareness of legal rights promotes integration and appropriate treatment and relations (Flannery, 2005 pg. 245).

Bibliography

Beck, U 1995 Ecological Enlightenment: Essays on the Politics of the Risk Society, New Jersey: Atlantic Press.

Beck, U.1992 Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, London: Sage

HAMILTON, C. (2007). Scorcher: the dirty politics of climate change. Melbourne, Black Inc. Agenda.

Political Dimension (Part 1): Global Trends

Economic globalization enhances privatization of amenities that were previously public. In addition it diminishes the role of government on the affairs of the economy of the country and its citizens as well. The disillusionment in the world over the unreliability of the government to measure up to their mandate is global. Furthermore, government budgetary allocation for minimum health care and basic education for several countries fail to supply enough resources for its citizens. The advances in technology and booming of economies also result in more poverty, violation of human rights and social disparities (Ungar, 1995 pg.135).

Globalization created a scenario where the role of the government becomes irrelevant. This is because he international trades flourish without levies or interference with the government. Investment, individual consumers and information technology have the middleman function in the countries where the role of government in trade is unfelt. The most affected participants of globalization are developing countries. They constantly promote the capitalist frontier so as to regain their control of the market which they lost. The United Nations which constantly creates avenues for restoration of human rights could serve to ensure adequate provision of human service (Flannery, 2005 pg.350).

Bibliography

FLANNERY, T. F. (2005). The weather makers: how man is changing the climate and what it means for life on Earth. New York, Atlantic Monthly Press.

Giddens, A. and Lash, S. 1994 Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order, Cambridge: Polity Press

Ungar, S 1995 ‘Social Scares and Global Warming: Beyond the Rio Convention’, Society and Natural Resources 8(4): 443–56.

Political Dimension (Part 2): Australian Trends

The Australian government itself faces numerous challenges of globalization in having to integrate its policies with those of the international economic cycle. The impact of this integration on the economic policies of Australia resulted in inflation, external stability, economic growth and microeconomic reforms. The contribution of the government in the economy and the civil society serves to promote security from issues like international terrorism that arise from globalization (Ritze, 2010 pg. 220).

The Australian government involves the civil society in its many policies that regard globalization through credible organizations like non-governmental organizations. The informal and formal networks of these NGOs come in handy. Not only should the government and the politicians make policies for its citizens but it should actively involve them in the process of the Australian treaty making (Atalay, 2005 pg. 245)

Bibliography

Lloyd, C. B., National Research Council (U.S.), & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2005). Growing up global: The changing transitions to adulthood in developing countries : selected studies. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council.

Giddens, A. and Lash, S. 1994 Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order, Cambridge: Polity Press