Global Sociology — Reading, Answering and Paraphrasing Skills Essay Example

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Global Sociology- Reading, Answering and Paraphrasing Skills 4

Global Sociology- Reading, Answering and Paraphrasing Skills

1. Robert K. Merton expands an understanding of functionalism in three ways. What are they? And what are their features?

The three ways of understanding functionalism includes; social, manifest and latent functions.

Social functions relates to the functions that contributes to the operation of a society, the consequences that makes a society operate in its present state, for instance, greeting one another.

Manifest functions are the opposite of latent functions, which are the consequences whose intention in a society are clearly laid out.

Latent functions are those consequences that are not easily recognised in a society.

For instance, taking children to school to better their lives, get employed is a (manifest function), while, the same action can isolate the ones who are not educated from the society.

2. According to Macionis& Plummer some people embrace the term ‘globalisation’ and some are its critics, summarise these views.

The proponents of globalization argue that, people all over the world have become interconnected thanks to technology. They argue that, modern sociology should not only focus on one country and generalise the findings to others. When the global perspective is adopted, sociologists learn more in different parts of the world. The opponents on the other hand, limits sociological studies to only one society so as to deepen the understanding of that society and later generalise the findings to other societies which, Macionis and Plummer suggests that it is limited as societies are different in their settings and structures among other functions.

3. What, according to Cohen, is a ‘moral panic’?

Moral panic as portrayed by Cohen is the hysterical reporting of some issues affecting the society, for instance, drugs, pornography child abuse among others, and that is often blown out of proportion, causing panic to the public. The media has a big role to play in moral panic and which often results to issues being amplified and in the end serves the interests of a few in the society for instance, politicians, bishops and social experts just to mention a few. The few whose interests are served then tries to bring social order by devising solutions to curb the situation so that it does not get out of hand and hence, their interests are well represented.

What is ‘social epidemiology’?4.

In defining social epidemiology, sociologists try to identify the effects of the society on the health of individuals. Macionis & Plummer (2012) proclaim that, an individual’s health is largely dependent on the society that surrounds him or her. Social epidemiology tries to identify the relationship between health and the living standards of people of a particular society, society’s inequalities and their effect on health, cultural changes and the impacts of such changes on society’s health and the moral aspects of society and the link to health among other factors. Therefore, social epidemiology primarily focuses on societal factors effects on health.

4. What is the difference between ‘absolute poverty’ and ‘relative poverty’?

In relative poverty, people have the resources that they need in life but the resources are less than what they should have. Absolute poverty on the other hand is the complete or the absolute deprivation of vital resources for the survival of human beings. In this category of absolute poverty, people’s lives are threatened, children have malnutrition and starvation and death is common. These are the people who live in what is termed as abject poverty to the point that they cannot fend for their children and themselves. Absolute poverty is only common to the poor and the less fortunate while, relative poverty cuts across all divides, that is the poor and also the rich.

6. What is ‘environmental racism’?

Environmental racism refers to prototype in which environmental disasters in most cases affects only the less fortunate in the society. Poor people are more affected by environmental hazards like water and air pollution. The social factors which predispose poor people to environmental racism in some cases are intentional. This is because, people of low living standards have no say on matters like water pollution from factors and thus intentional.