Global Sociology- Reading, Answering and Paraphrasing Skills Essay Example

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5Global sociology-answering and paraphrasing

Global Sociology- Reading, Answering and Paraphrasing Skills

  1. What is ‘urban ecology’ and which school of sociology developed it?

Urban ecology has been defined as the study of the physical and social dimensions of cities (Macionis & Plummer 2012). The study applies the approach of cultural ecology, the study of how cultural patterns are related to the physical environment, to reveal how the physical and social forms of cities influence each other. There is a natural competition for space in cities hence; the study seeks to explain why cities are located where they are, the physical design of cities and what people from specific residents have in common. The study was developed by sociologists who are members of the Chicago School of Sociology.

2. What are Glock’s five dimensions of ‘religiosity’?

Religiosity marks out the importance of religion in an individual’s life. Five dimensions of religiosity were distinguished by Charles Glock (1962) as follows; Intellectual religiosity which refers to the knowledge or how well versed an individual is to the history and doctrines of a particular religion. Secondly is the experiential religiosity which refers to the strength of a person’s emotional ties to religion. The frequency of ritual activity such as attending church and prayer also referred to as Ritualistic religiosity is the other dimension Consequential religiosity which deals with how strongly religious beliefs feature in a person’s daily behavior and finally experiential religiosity which refers to the strength of a person’s emotional ties to religion.

3. How do sociologists distinguish between the terms ‘sex’ and ‘gender’?

Sociologists have made a number of distinctions between sex and gender. The biological distinction between males and females refers to sex. Sex is taken to have six main components: reproductive organs, external genitals, chromosome make up, hormonal states, internal genitals and secondary sex characteristics.

Gender on the other hand refers to the social aspects of differences and hierarchies between male and female. It involves more than the biological differences; it involves power and hierarchy. For instance society’s men enjoy more privileges than women. Therefore, where is may refer to male and female, gender refers to the social meaning of masculinity and femininity.

  1. What are the differences between ‘heterosexism’ and ‘homophobia’?

Heterosexism refers to an ideology that unjustly dismisses discriminates or negatively prejudices the group of people who are not heterosexual. It is referred to as unjust because enforcing is regarded to be violation of the law as racism and sexism. This is because homosexuality like any other sexual orientation has been institutionalized in laws, religions, education and languages all over the world.

Homophobia on the other hand refers to the hatred, disregard and fear of homosexuals. This definition was coined from an earlier definition by an American psychiatrist that defined it as the great fear of being in the same quarter with homosexual people.

  1. What is the difference between the terms ‘ethnicity’ and ‘race’?

Although people sometimes people use the terms ethnicity and race interchangeably, they do not mean the same. Ethnicity refers to shared cultural and historical heritage. It’s made of societies composed of cultures linked to many different ethnic histories. On the contrast, race refers to a category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that are deemed socially significant by the members of the society. It is a presumed significant biological difference between groups. People can be classified on races depending on their physical characteristics such as the skin color, facial features, and hair texture and body shape. These features are superficial to members of the same biological species.

  1. What are the common features of ‘new social movements’?

The most visible feature of new social movement is their national and international scope. They recognize the global scale response needed to deal with the development of global economic and political system. They unite people all over the world. Also, organizationally, the NSMs tend to be informal. They do not have hierarchies and are less interested in power. Further, the movements are less concerned with traditional issues of politics such as class and work like trade unions. Their membership is made up of young people for example university students. Finally they do not pursue mainstream values but pursues values that are likely to improve the quality of life.


Glock, C. Y. (1962). On the Study of Religious Commitment. Religious Education, (Special Issue), 98-110.

Macionis J. & Plummer K, (2012). Sociology: A Global Introduction, (5th edition), Pearson Education, Essex, United Kingdom.