Geographical Analysis of Moscow 1 Essay Example

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Moscow: Geographical Characteristics

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Moscow is the ninth richest city in the world with a GDP of $520.1 billion as at 2015. Moscow is the Capital City of Russia covering an area of 2,500km2. Situated in the western part of the country, the City is home for an estimated population of 11.5 million inhabitants accounting for approximately 9% of Russia’s population[ CITATION Pet05 l 1033 ]. 1147 marks the year of discovery for Moscow, which is the seat of governance housing the Presidency in Kremlin, the parliament, and other crucial government agencies. Moscow is a metropolitan city with the majority of the residents being of Russian origin while minority groups have migrated from neighboring countries and other international states. Concentric rings radiating from the Kremlin’s triangle characterize the city’s layout marking various historical developments for Moscow [ CITATION Kat14 l 1033 ].

The climate recorded by Moscow is humid continental with lengthy cold winters and warm, humid summers. The city never records frosty weather or excess heat, but normal temperatures deviate very frequently depending on the season. Annually, the City records temperatures over 0oC for 194 days and 103 days are usually below 0oC[ CITATION Pet05 l 1033 ].

Moscow boasts as Russia’s main industrial center with metalworking and engineering taking the lead. Manufacturing activities such as textile industries, chemical industries, food processing as well as furniture assembly contributes to Moscow’s economic activities. Moscow is a center for both foreign and domestic commerce with established banking systems as well as other financial services[ CITATION Jas13 l 1033 ].

Water bodies and Physical Features

Moskva River cuts across the city of Moscow connecting it to five seas namely Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Moskva River runs for approximately 500Kms across the plains of East Europe with 80Kms of the river’s length spread across the City of Moscow[ CITATION Kat14 l 1033 ]. The Ucha Reservoir is a surface water body connected to the Moscow Canal meeting most of the water needs of the Moscovites. Moskva River’s visible tributaries include the Yauza that has two appendages on its left side. Underground water bodies on the Carboniferous beds provide artesian water through a thousand deep bores[ CITATION Nob11 l 1033 ].

Organization of Moscow City

Moscow has 123 districts referred to as rayons with ten okrugs that serve as administrative boroughs. The city is organized in concentric rings circulating the Kremlin triangle and the Kitay-Gorod, which is a rectangular extension of the Kremlin located in the inner city. The rings mark various historical milestones and development of the city during successive epochs. The Moskva River that flows northwest to southeast further modifies the city’s outlook. The Kremlin is the City’s heart symbolizing authority and power of the Soviet Union and Russia holding the world’s most striking architectural ensembles in churches and palaces. Three magnificently built cathedrals are located around the centrally situated cathedral square with the Cathedral of Assumption being the oldest[ CITATION Kat14 l 1033 ].

The western part of the Cathedral Square holds various palaces namely the Palace of Facets, the Armoury Palace, and the Terem Palace. Administrative headquarters and government offices are in the city’s central business district (CBD). Also, the CBD holds larger shops, hotels, museums, art galleries, principal theatres and other residential premises. The middle zone contains many factories as well as the key railway stations and some housing units. Moscow’s third ring is the outermost part of the city hosting the industrial zone as well as major construction sites. The Ring Road contains forests, open land, satellite industries and suburbs [ CITATION Pet05 l 1033 ].

Transportation network and connectivity to the surrounding

A robust network of electrified railway, waterways, road transport and air transport connects Moscow to both local and international cities. The railway is a dependable transport system for freight transport as well as passengers commuting to the suburbs of Moscow. Moscow’s railway lines include St. Petersburg line connecting to Vladivostok, Yaroslav line, Nizhny Novgorod line linking Moscow to Kirov, Kazan line leading to Siberia and Urais, Ryazan line, Pavelets line connecting to South Europe, Kiev line leading to Ukraine and Smolensk line connecting to Berlin[ CITATION Jas13 l 1033 ].

Moscow has three river ports for freight as well as a terminus for passengers with the Moscow Canal accommodating ships of seagoing size. Moscow is Russia’s hub for air transport with Demodedovo situated 28 miles south of the city being its largest airport. Other airports include Sheremetyevo-2, Sheremetyevo-1 handling domestic flights as well as Vnukovo and Bykovo airport. The Kremlin is Moscow’s center of the road system with roads radiating outwards forming intersections with those circulating the city forming rings. Major highways leading to Moscow include E30 spanning through Germany, Poland as well as Belarus. E22 leads to Latvia and Riga while E18 connects Finland to St. Petersburg[ CITATION Kat14 l 1033 ].


Davis, J. (2013). Moscow’s Physical Geography. Journal of Geography, 50-62.

Murreli, K. B. (2014, September 12). National Capital Russia. Britannica.

Nobert, M., & Kelcey, J. G. (2011). The Devonian and Carboniferous of the Moscow Syneclise. Science Direct.

Petrophysical Society. (2005). Russian Style Formation Evaluation. London: London Publishers.