Gastronomy and Tourism Essay Example

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Gastronomy and Tourism

Authenticity Statement:

I declare that this is my original work with no part written by any other person. The drafts I have submitted clearly depict my own developments and editing. I have acknowledged all literature sources used in the displaying of my unique ideas. I have acknowledged this according to APA system of referencing.

Table of Contents

1. Gastronomy and tourism 4

Introduction 4

1.2 .Food Identities 5

1.3 Tourism, production and consumption 6

Relating consumption and production in gastronomy tourism experiences 8Figure 1.1

1.4 Gastronomy tourism and wine 9

1.5 Food as a motivator Factor 12

1.6 Food ways (Food Habits) 12

1.7 Gastronomy and cooking schools 13

2Conclusions 13

Bibliography 14

1. Gastronomy and Tourism


As tourists grow more mobile, so does our food. The comfortable relation of particular foods with specific regions is being counteracted by the increasing cooking styles, mobility of food, and the expanding de-differentiation of dishes plus the cuisines. Far from manufacturing a homogenized gastronomic scene, the pressure between globalization and domestication is generating ever more variations. More and more universal drinks are evolving such as the McDonald and Coca-Cola. In addition, more native and regional foods are blooming, new ‘fusion foods have also been generated to feed the ‘universal soul.’ Tourists are constantly contributing to the gastronomic mobility by developing demand in their own states for foods they often encounter abroad.

Gastronomy has grown extensively through the ages, and there are countless researches that chart the growth of the gastronomic styles and the various tastes over time. For instance, Sanchez, (2013), describes the development of consumption in England and France in the middle ages. Sanchez, (2013), has further summarized the growth of Western Cuisines in United Sates. Gastronomy just like culture has become more difficult to define over time.

As Scarpeto explains, the original depiction of gastronomy has expanded in the recent years. According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, gastronomy is the art choose, preparing, serving and enjoying pleasant foods. Originally, gastronomy was known to be for the nobility, but as time goes by, the concept has come to incorporate the ‘peasant food’ distinctive of regional as well as local cuisines. It also encompasses a wide variety of food, the development of cultural norms linked to food has implied that the concept of gastronomy has incorporated cultural also, this led Scarparto to explain about ‘gastronomic culture’. Nowadays, the serving and food consumption is a universal industry, including tourism as a key aspect. In familiar with other services plus ‘experiences’ provided to postmodern consumers, a typical system of manufacturing, distribution, and presentation has materialized that can be distinguished as ‘cultural industries. Basically, this has been expanded to include a wide variety of economic activities in regard to tourism.

1.2 .Food Identities

Schulze et al., (2011), argued that nutrient ingestion is not the only key purpose of eating , but rather also the experiences of tasting variety of food and the importance of socializing with various people during the occasion, particularly when the foods depicts a symbolic meaning of a particular event. Food might resemble status especially in special occasions with various people with different social classes. For instance, Caviar beluga is often associated with persons of high status. Contrary, beans and nuts may be related with persons of low class status.

According to Rajpal, (2013), modern condition has been characterized by the growing level of social as well as personal insecurity. With the rampart disintegration of customary structures of meaning, individuals are seeking for new sources of identification that may offer some security in this turbulent world. Food has since become a vital aspect in search of identification. Food is a basic need, so notably; it is among the most sought makers of identity. What you eat is what you are in relation to the physiological, sociological a well as psychological aspects. The child hood comfort foods can become our refuge cocooners in our adult lives. And so any effort to alter our eating habits can be perceived as an assault to our personal, national as well as regional attack.

Food is key factor of ‘environmental bubble’ that seem to surround most tourists on their holiday. When on holidays, on many occasions; many tourists tend to consume food that is similar to their home-made food. Occasionally, some tourists may carry their own food on holidays. For instance, Dutch tourists are well known for this kind of habits, they often carry potatoes when on camping in Southern Europe.

1.3 Tourism, Production and Consumption

Harvey (2013), states that tourism is intimately related to native food production. Just like the native people, tourists need to eat. And if their satiety can be fulfilled from home resources, this can offer a momentous boost to domestic economy. On contrary, tourism can increase importation of foods from external markets; this can cause negative effects on the local agricultural scene, mounting imports while subtracting economic profit of tourism. Therefore, strong linkages between can form considerable added value, however, poor linkages can proof fatal.

Hall & Gossling (2013), states that because domestic food production will often depend on the agricultural practices, hunting and fishing, thus the appropriate formation of linkages with tourism may help in the prompt of indigenous entrepreneurship activity as well as stimulation of bottom up generation of community-based tourisms programs. As shown in the case of India, tourism not only offers a market for final agricultural produce, but also gives the prospective of further revenue generation by developing exciting experiences for tourists as agritourism.

In other cases, conversely, tourists’ preference of familiar foods over foreign foods can be a significant drain on national economy. This often occurs in countries with limited variety of agricultural food production including numerous small island destinations. Tourism is a vital market in nations with well versatile local agricultural food production. Additionally, innovation has been a major contributing factor in gastronomic development. For instance, Australia and New Zealand has considerable effective networks integrating both vertical as well as horizontal incorporation

Another major factor of food production in the current ‘complicated society’ is the level to which food is safe for consumption. In early 1970s, food safety were became serious fears in the developed nations which were then associated to all kinds of foods including unpasteurized milk. The generation of modern industry farming ways and the food processing has led to the escalated fears linked to mass-processed foods and thus the demand for more ‘safer’ foods including biological foods have greatly grown as a result. Consequently, this has led to the growth of gastronomic tourisms in nations that have proved to produce ‘safer’ foods over time. Gradually this has become a vital aspect in peripheral regions where famers may lack mechanization and modernization for ensuring safe production of food. Moreover, the growing awareness of food risks may result to the strengthening of labeling and quality policies that assures the source and production methods of this foods. Besides, this has always been a major component of universal marketing strategies (Schulze et al., 2011).

Gastronomy tourism is linked in its numerous forms to various facets of the production-consumption scale, ranging from the sampling of the raw materials at the farm to the gastronomic experiences provided by restaurants. Arguably, addition of more parts to the original product can enhance quality of experience for the customer. This may as well add extra value to the product.

Gastronomy and Tourism

Figure 1.1 Relating consumption and production in gastronomy tourism experiences

Furthermore, tourisms are being relatively linked to the developing of economic experience and the continuous necessity to innovate as well as differentiate products and services which adds extra value for the customers.

1.4 Gastronomy Tourism and Wine

Green & kline (2013), argues that in order to make gastronomy tourism viable, one may need an expansion of food stores, food trails, restaurants, hotels and other structures where tourists can easily buy their food. Currently, shopping malls, urban regeneration programs and coastal resorts, the incorporation of the food component is absolutely necessary and the location is a key factor. In rural areas, planning for physical structures ranging from signs to the parking lots, picnicking sites and walking trails, may be considered as an aspect of an indigenous as well as incremental improvement of food provision for the tourists.

Nevertheless, for a few decades, the attractiveness of food and wine is becoming more popular among many tourists. According to (Flandrin et al., (2013), in Canada, culinary tourism is one of the key income generating activities. For instance it generates approximately a total of $1billion per annum. More and more nations have begun discovering their potential wealth of culinary tourism. Conigliaro, (2013), pointed out that the movement of Singapore generated ‘’New Asia-Singapore Cuisine’’ as source of attracting more tourists in the country. The cuisines attempted to intertwine the flavor of the east as well of those from the west cuisines.

Additionally, Singapore has a history of organizing Singapore Food Festivals that often attracts many numerous visitors from various nations. The World Gourmet Summit is also another important food festival enjoyed by many people. Currently, Singapore is making efforts of refining its foods and wine image in the global picture, Singapore aims at becoming one of the leading food destinations in Asian regions. Food and wine tourism can be difined as culinary tourism. Green &Kline (2013) describes food tourism as the act of visiting both chief and secondary food producers, restaurants, particular food sites and food festivals where food is displayed for tasting. Sanchez (2013) emphasizes that food is an important aspect of tourism marketing and that many tourism destinations have become prominent for serving excellent food with remarkable experiences. Schulze (2011) illustrated that culinary tourism is often classified as cultural tourism following its close relation to the preservation of agricultural products. Italy is vastly recognized for its excellent wine and olive oil productions. Basically, culinary tourism may include gourmet tours at production farms, wineries including the tasting of the products. These visitors tend to provide tourists with unique memorable experiences that may last for a life time. It also offers one with an opportunity to experience other with other foreign cultures. The figure below outlines framework the explains various components of culinary tourism

Gastronomy and Tourism 1

Figure 2: supply elements of wine and culinary tourism structure.

Source: Magda Antonioli Corigliano; 2002

As culinary tourism globally expands, more tourists are discovering more attractive and unique experiences on their travels. More and more food varieties also emerge including various wine routes, food literatures, food festivals as well as food travel packages.

1.5 Food as a Motivator Factor

Harvey (2013) argued that individuals often travel to new destinations for a number of reasons. One may travel with an aim of exploring food. This is embraced from the Mcltosh motivation topology. The topology included four key groups; physical, cultural, interpersonal as well as status creation and prestige motivators. Physical motivators are often linked to the real experiences encountered by the tourists on their travels. In cuisines, tourists may experience the new food by sampling at the sample tables. This phenomenon creates an exciting experience for the tourist that is not often encountered on a typical day. Cultural motivators are strongly related food cultures. One may become interested in particular kind of food after learning a new culture that may seem exciting. One aspect of experiencing the various cultures is through food. Sometimes, tourists may decide to travel to new places in order to experience the unique authentic cuisines.

1.6 Food ways (Food Habits)

Conigliaro (2013), defines food ways as interconnected networks f traditions, norms, behaviors as well as beliefs in regard to food, and it encompasses all the events that surrounds food elements and consumption , including preparation, preservation, purchasing as well as performance of the food. Food ways are linked to the various feeding habits of certain societies and individuals. Socio-economic and cultural facets also forms a significant aspect of one’s food preference. Food habits are often complex and can be depended on factors such as geographical area, ethnicity, religion and cultural practices. Food cultures developing from the cultural practices are sometimes defined by the environmental aspects, social and religious background. For instance, Muslims do not consume pork, and therefore, this may inspire their food habits when on holidays. They tend to select pork-free restaurants. Similarly, cultural values and norms is an important aspect of food tourism. Individuals travel to various destinations to experience unique culture as they explore the different socio and economic lifestyles.

1.7 Gastronomy and Cooking Schools

Vocational training as well as cooking schools can help enrich the capacities to produce and create food related tourisms events. However, this may require relentless and long lasting learning, especially in a fast changing sector. The Danish ‘House of the Meal have established learning schools for professionals interesting in studying food quality served in restaurants as well as catering sectors. The school admits students for cookery tourism experiences. This school is updated with modern learning structures and facilities that enable them to access the relevant literatures on food. The school organizes seminars that invite various food researchers who inspire the students in their careers. The Swidish initiative Grythyttan is another example of a food cooking schools operating in Sweden. The students also enhance their skills through demonstrative projects as food festival (Hall, & Gossingling, 2013).

2. Conclusions

Gastronomy has substantial potentials as a way of generating and marketing tourism worldwide. While tourists might be enthusiastic consumers of gastronomic foodstuffs, however, there are still numerous tensions surrounding the manufacturing, reproduction as well as consumption of gastronomic culture. Following the numerous elements of the tangible heritage, occasionally, some individuals may opt to ‘save’ the gastronomic heritage early enough to avoid it becoming washed away by the sway of globalization. The Slow Food Movement creates a perfect example of how the development of gastronomic culture has become a representative of life that most individuals could consider worth saving. Globalization is rationalization. And as noted earlier, rationalization has numerous benefits to individuals. Modern omnivorous tourists could well prefer to enjoy a sample of local gastronomy, but they might not be willing to risk their health as well.


Conigliaro, T. (2013). The cocktail lab unraveling the mysteries of flavor and aroma in drink, with recipes. Berkeley, Ten Speed Press.{E60DA1F3-439E-41DE-9769-871671A41CA5}&Format=410.

Flandrin, J.-L., Montanari, M., & Sonnenfeld, A. (2013). Food: a culinary history from antiquity to the present.

Green, E., & kline, C. (2013). A study of travelers’ foodie activity dimensions, demographic characteristics, and trip behaviors. [Greenville, N.C.], East Carolina University.

Hall, C. M., & Gossingling , S. (2013). Sustainable culinary systems: local foods, innovation, and tourism and hospitality. London, Routledge.

Harvey, M. (2013). Wine and identity: branding, heritage, terroir.

Rajpal, N. (2013). Food and wine tourism. New Delhi, Anmol Publications.

Sanchez, J. (2013). Molecular gastronomy: scientific cuisine demystified.

Sidali, K. L., Spiller, A., & Schulze, B. (2011). Food, agri-culture and tourism linking local gastronomy and rural tourism: interdisciplinary perspectives. Berlin, Springer.