Forum Posts Essay Example

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Hospital Acquired Infections:

Hospital Acquired Infections and Their Effect on Costs


Hospital acquired infections (HAI) refers to medical conditions which are contracted by a patient upon arrival at a medical institution. There must be sufficient evidence to show that the complication was acquired within the hospital environment and not before being admitted in the hospital. Due to the present upsurge in the cases related to HAI it is necessary that one understands the impact of this issue, which is mostly economical in terms of costs.


In order to understand the direct impact on HAI in terms of the costs to the patients, a survey was conducted for a sample population of 50 patients in a certain hospital. The following results were established;

Area of interest

Reported cases of HAI

Resulting from prolonged hospital stay

Resulting from compromised nutrition

Successful treatment

Most of the patients for both male and female patients had contracted the disease as a result of prolonged hospital stay and evidently, this has an effect of increasing the costs related to additional treatment and medical attention.

Advantages of Quantitative research

  1. Provides actual figures that are useful in the analytical process

  2. Easy to tabulate and convert into charts that are easy to understand


Muralidhar, V. & Muralidhar, S. (2007). Hospital acquired infections: power strategies for clinical practice. Kent: Anshan.

Data Coding and Analysis

This refers to the process various extensive sets of data are condensed into lesser and more analyzable units. This may be achieved through a procedure that entails the creation of categories as well as concepts, which are obtained from the data. It can be seen also as a means through which verbal data is transformed into numerical figures in order to allow for the figures to be input in the computer for analytical purposes.

The categories as well as variables for analysis include the following;

VForum PostsForum Posts 1Forum Posts 2Forum Posts 3Forum Posts 4Forum Posts 5Forum Posts 6 ariables: Gender Age Do you agree that HAI contributes to increased bills

Categories: Male Female 15-25 26-40 41-Above Yes No

The final responses in the above variables are given specific codes for instance 1 may be taken to represent a ‘YES’ response by a ‘Male’ gender and so on. The categories are listed in form of rows and columns in a final table. Other than this, one prepares a codebook, which is meant to allow the study to be repeated and also validated and also make the method to be transparent.

Importance of coding

  1. Allows you to make sense of your collected data

  2. Facilitates interpretation of data for an organization and forming proper conclusions


Parker, M. T (2008) Hospital-acquired infections: guidelines to laboratory methods, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe;

Quantitative research

Qualitative research analysis incorporates the following sub categories; Case study research results, Ethnography research, Ex-Post Facto (aka Casual Comparative research), Action research, observation. In relation to the selected topic, the proposal focuses on a hospital that has been randomly selected, based on the number of years it has been operational where the one with the longest time of existence is considered. Then, there will be observation and analysis of some individual units for example: Person, Small group and a large group where in this case, it can be the community.

The methods of study in this case will focus upon and analyze in depth some aspect of the unit. The diversities of the methods will involve the use of questionnaires, Interviews which may be direct or structured to the patients, the community and the doctors and medical personnel present.

When the respective hospital has been picked, one qualitative measure of analysis involves observation. There are two types of observation; Participatory observation, where the researcher engages in activities but anonymity should be observed but also there is a danger of subjectivity that the researcher may expose himself to, and there is detached observation, where the researcher remains aloof from activities. It is always easier method to remain neutral since there is always a danger in influencing behavior when the researcher participates.

Under Ethnography research; there is the study of culture of a people, there is the relativistic approach, grounded theory approach and theory of reasoned action.

We will also focus on causal-comparative (aka Ex Post Facto) is a research method that can suggest cause and effect between two or more target groups.


  • Comparing Academic Achievement of First Graders Who Attended Kindergarten Versus Those Who Did Not Attend

  • Comparing Whole Language Reading Scores of Second Graders Versus Traditional Basal Scores of Second Graders

  • Academic Achievement of Second Graders from Broken Homes versus Academic Achievement of Second Graders From Non-Broken Homes

Advantages of qualitative research

  1. A researcher is able to gain rich and in detailed data in various forms e.g. comprehensive descriptions in written and visual evidence e.g. photographs.

  2. It is essential in early research stages when a researcher is not decided or unsure of whatever it is that will be studied because one does not require a strict plan before commencing.


Mathur, P. (2010) Hospital Acquired Infections and Control, Walters Kluwer Health, New York Times

Focus Groups

In this case, when we define focus groups, we are looking at a group of highly skilled professionals discussing the main topic of our research proposal. The cumulative and collaborative sharing of ideas by the professionals is called focus groups.

Focus groups provide an expert view of looking at a problem and it creates a dimension through which a comprehensive solution can be sort, for instance, the project topic Hospital Acquired Infections will have a group consisting of medical officers, doctors and other experts in the disease and related infections departments all talking and giving their opinions in great detail about the problem.

The advantage of using focus groups is that; there is a great depth of the definition of the main problem.

In addition, there is a broad knowledge base of ideas based on past experiences of the of the individuals in the focus group where by the topic at hand is greatly analyzed through various analysis techniques and researches conducted in that field before.

In summary, focus groups explore a topic in depth through group discussion, e.g.,

  • about reactions to an experience or suggestion, understanding common complaints, etc.;

  • useful in evaluation and marketing


  • quickly and reliably get common impressions

  • can be efficient way to get much range and depth of information in short time

  • can convey key information about programs


  • can be hard to analyse responses

  • need good facilitator for safety and closure

  • difficult to schedule 6-8 people together

  1. Preparation.

My research report would be based on both practical work and study of organizations or work areas.

I would identify the purpose and audience of the research using well-defined questions.

  1. Collecting and organizing.

I would identify how I will collect and organize information collected into an appropriate logical order.

  1. Planning.

I would prepare a detailed plan in a form outlining;

  1. Logical organization

Information will be arranges in a logical order communicating main ideas preceding supporting details then examples.

  1. Headings

I would employ use of headings and subheadings to show different sections

  1. Writing report.

I would draft my report from the plan enlisted, presenting my ideas logically and coherently.

I would summarize my findings using the research methods given i.e. qualitative research, quantitative research, focus groups.

I would use coding data and data analysis as basis of analysis in my report.


Mathur, P. (2010) Hospital Acquired Infections and Control, Walters Kluwer Health, New York Times