Formative Assessment Essay Example

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Formative Assessment:

  1. Consider the variety of routes by which medications can be administered. Complete the following table:



Medication Example

Nursing action required

It is safe.

It is expedient.


Good drug absorption because of extensive surface area (Paccalin, 2010).

Slow absorption.

Can’t be administered when vomiting.

Slow absorption of a number of drugs.

Slow start of drug action.

Can’t be administered with irritable and unpalatable drugs.

Can’t be used to unconscious and uncooperative patients.

Can’t be utilized in severe queasiness.

Destruction of some drugs in abdomen like insulin.

Food intake affects drug absorption.

Irritation of some drugs to gastric mucosa.


Take the medicine, shake it well, help patient sit in a comfortable position then administer the medicine in to the mouth of the patient gently (Paccalin, 2010).


Economical as sterilization is needed.

There is quick extinction of undesirable drug effects by spitting of the remaining drug.

The effects of first pass are avoided.

There is quick drug absorption.

Its bitter tasting and also unpalatable drug.

There is irritation of oral mucosa.

Can’t be given to unconscious patient.

Large amounts cannot be administered.

Cannot be used in extreme vomiting.

Some medicines are absorbed throughout oral mucosa.

Ergoloid mesylates

The drugs are dissolved under the tongue, and the active ingredient is absorbed directly by the oral mucosa.

It not painful as (Paccalin, 2010) asserts.

No after drug effects

Causes irritation

Dactyl sulphosuccinate

Apply the drug gently on the patient’s appendage that is arching.


Quick start of action.

Suitable for unconscious patients.

Dosage accuracy is ensured.

More useful on emergency situations.

It is less safe.

It’s difficult to manage because of side effects.

Technical individuals needed.


Placing adhesive skin side, and then peeling off the opposite half of the liner. Pressing the skin patch resolutely with palm of the hand 30 seconds while at the same time making sure it adheres to the skin adhesively more specifically at the edges.

Mucous Membranes

Effect of fast pass is avoided.

Can be administered together with drugs producing gastric irritation.

Non-absorbed medicines from G.I.T can be administered.

Can be applied with drugs damaged by gastric acid.

No effects when vomiting and or in diarrhea.

It is difficult to self-administer drugs.

It’s expensive as well.

It’s not convenient and painful.

There are probability of nerve and blood vessel harm.

Poses the risk of infection due to improper sterilization methods.


benzodiazepines xanax/valium

Insufflate nasally for the purpose of intranasal absorption through the mucous membrane.


There is rapid absorption of drug because of large surface area.

Patients avoid first pass result.

There are rapid confined effects.

Few drugs can be given.

It may make irritation of pulmonary mucosa.

A lot of Inconvenient procedures.

There is probability of cardio toxicity.

Quick absorption causes total side effects.

There is poor capability to regulate drug dose.

Budesonide and fluticasone

Placing the inhaler in to the mouth of the patient. Should be assisted to inhale.


Drug actions are persistent and uniform.

Drugs can be given during vomiting and diarrhea.

Unconscious patients can take drugs as well.

Initial pass result is avoided.

Can be given with un absorbed G.I.T drugs.

Merely non-irritant drugs can be administered.

The absorption of drugs is sluggish than I/M injection.

It is expensive.

Risk of infection, if proper sterilization methods are not used.

Huge quantity of drug cannot be administered.

Norplant, Oreton, Percorten

Open the alcohol wipe, prepare the needle, grasp the skin, insert the needle in to the skin at an angle of 90 or 45 degrees and then pull out the needle gently (Scobie 2003).


Absorption rate is consistent.

Quick onset of action.

Can be given together with irritant substances.

Unconscious patients can take drugs in this method.

There is accuracy of quantity.

Helpful in urgent situations.

Avoidance of initial pass effect.

Medicine producing gastric exasperation can be administered.

Drugs that are not engrossed from G.I.T can be administered.

Only small volumes of up to 10 ml of drug can be administered at a time.

Feeling of local pain as well as abscess formation.

Technical individuals are needed as self-administration of drug is hard.


Poses a risk of infection if good sterilization methods are not applied.

The likelihood of nerve harm is very high.

Metoclopramide and


Look at the muscle and divide it into three equal parts. The middle third is where the injection will go. The muscle is a good place to give an injection because it is easy to see (Brashear 2002).