Form writing Essay Example

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  1. What is knowledge?

According to Frappaolo (2006 pp.41), knowledge can be defined as information and or skills gained through experience, association or education. Most philosophers reckon that there are three types of knowledge, namely: personal knowledge, propositional knowledge and procedural knowledge.

Personal knowledge can be defined as cognizance of a circumstance or fact acquired through firsthand experience or observation (Frappaolo, 2006 pp.20). For example, in order for one to know pain, he or she must have experienced it. Secondly, procedural language can be described as the knowledge exercised in the performance of a task, for example, one can know how to ride a bicycle (Delvin, 1999 pp.49). Lastly, propositional knowledge can be defined as the knowledge of facts (Frappaolo, 2006 pp.31).

  1. Information concepts

Information can be defined as data which has been processed in a way that can be easily interpreted by the person receive receiving it (Delvin, 1999 pp.52). According to Frappaolo (2006 pp.111), information can also be defined as ‘knowledge communicated or received pertaining to a certain fact or circumstance’. Communication can be defined as the process by which information is conveyed between individuals (Frappaolo, 2006 pp.31). On the other hand, representation can be defined as a method of coding knowledge in an expert system (Frappaolo, 2006 pp.32). Thus, the concept of information is closely related to communication and representation (Delvin, 1999 pp.54).

  1. Situation analyzed using 3 worlds models

The scenario:

Fans of xyz football club have been complaining that the club has not been performing as well as it used to in the last couple of years. The fans decide to go see the manager of the football club to find a way forward. The manager realizes that in order for the club to perform better, new players with more experience and better skills have to be brought in. In order for this to happen, non performing players have to be sold to raise funds for the transfer.

World 1: object and events:

Objects: xyz football club, fans, manager, players

Events: player transfers

World 2: cognition

Fans: realize that the club has not been performing well.

Manager: realizes that some players have not been playing well. He also finds out that better players can be bought

World 3: data/information

Team performance, sale of non performing players, purchase of better players

  1. Wilson’s paper

The nonsense of knowledge management scrutinizes the concept of knowledge management as well as the problems in the dissimilarity between knowledge and information. In addition, Polanyi’s concept of tacit knowledge is also examined.

Wilson says that knowledge management it would be wrong to assume that knowledge management lacks efficacy when applied in organizations (Wilson, 2002). He goes ahead to explain that ‘knowledge’ and ‘information’ are similar concepts which should be differentiate in the field of science and technology (Wilson, 2002). To distinguish between them, Wilson says that messages do not carry knowledge, instead, they constitute information.

  1. What is knowledge management?

According to (Maier, 2007 pp.19), there is no universal definition of knowledge management. However, knowledge management can be defined as the process through which organizations generate value from their intelligent and knowledge-based assets (Maier, 2007 pp.20). Knowledge management can also be defined as the strategies and processes that are intended to identify, capture, value and share an organization’s intellectual resources in a bid to improve its performance and profitability (Maier, 2007 pp.20).

  1. Knowledge management system

Generally, a knowledge management system can be described as a distributed information technology-based system which is basically supposed to manage knowledge in organizations (Maier, 2007, pp. 39). Knowledge management systems are widely used in organizations in order to improve business process performance (Maier, 2007, pp. 67). Knowledge management systems can be used in the human resource department, business strategy department as well as in the information technology department to improve the organization’s performance.

  1. Knowledge analysis principles

Knowledge analysis can be described as a systematic method of determining the status of critical knowledge in the organization (Dalkir & Liebowitz, 2011 pp.101). Basically, it is a way of ‘knowing what you know’ (Tiwana, 2002 pp.85). Knowledge analysis is vital for the development of a knowledge management strategy as well as (Tiwana, 2002 pp.86). Moreover, knowledge analysis is also useful in problem solving.

  1. Knowledge analysis processes

The following processes are involved in knowledge auditing

  • Categorizing critical knowledge items. This is done after task analysis is completed (Tiwana, 2002 pp.86).

  • For each category of critical knowledge items, a method of gathering data (Tiwana, 2002 pp.88).

  • Planning on how the knowledge audit will be done (Dalkir & Liebowitz, 2011 pp.103).

  • Conduct the actual audit as planned

  • Analyzing and interpreting the collected data and information. A conclusion can then be made (Dalkir & Liebowitz, 2011 pp.103).

  1. Knowledge cycle

According to Frappaolo (2006 pp.114), the knowledge cycle is a model that contributes to implementation of knowledge management. The knowledge cycle is comprised of the following stages: knowledge creation, knowledge articulation, knowledge storage updating, knowledge access, and knowledge use as well as knowledge revision (Dalkir & Liebowitz, 2011 pp.106). All the phases in the phases are important for effectual organizational learning.

  1. Knowledge system components

The components of knowledge management system include the following:

  • Strategy. The strategy outlines the needs and issues within the organization. The strategy also provides a framework for these issues to be addressed (Maier, 2007, pp. 71).

  • Actors. These are the people central to the system. They include the owner, source, client, managers, enablers and boundaries spanners (Maier, 2007, pp. 71).

  • Infrastructure such as equipment, instruments, software, networks and repositories (Maier, 2007, pp. 72).

  • Functionality. Knowledge management systems ought to support and improve knowledge-oriented processes and tasks (Maier, 2007, pp. 72).

  • Delivery. Every knowledge system requires the facilitation of knowledge (Maier, 2007, pp. 73).

  • Content. This enables system functionality (Tiwana, 2002 pp.88).

  • Continuous improvement.

  1. Knowledge management design

This is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces as well as data required to build a knowledge management system (Tiwana, 2002 pp.91). According to Frappaolo (2006 pp.111), he following steps are involved in knowledge systems design

  • Identification of the knowledge problem/opportunity.

  • Identification of the knowledge that needs to be managed.

  • Determination of the mode of delivery.

  • Identification of the functionality required to enable the system

  • Identification of any existing knowledge assets

  • Designing the system

  • Specifying the knowledge management team

  • Specifying the infrastructural requirements to support the system

  • Determining how the system will be evaluated

  • Identification of changes to be made.


Wilson T.D 2002, ‘The Nonsense of Knowledge Management’, Information Research, vol. 8: 1

Maier, R., 2007. Knowledge Management Systems: Information and Communication Technologies for Knowledge Management. Springer

Dalkir, K, & Liebowitz, J., 2011. Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice. The MIT Press

Tiwana, A., 2002. The Knowledge Management Toolkit: Orchestrating IT, Strategy, and Knowledge Platforms. Prentice Hall publishers

Frappaolo, C., 2006. Knowledge Management. Capstone press

Delvin, K., 1999. Infosense: Understanding Information to Survive in the Knowledge Society. St. Martin’s Press