Finance analysis and report Essay Example

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Firm investment decision and growth under financial constraint: European Research

  • Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1

  • Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………………………..2

  • Aims and Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………………….3

  • Review of relevant literature and theory…………………………………………………………………4

  • Methodology and Data…………………………………………………………………………………………5

  • Results and Discussion………………………………….,……………………………………………………..6

  • Conclusions and recommendations………………………………………………………………………..7

  • References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………8


1.0 Abstract

The research centre’s on depicting a model of the utmost venture options for diverse companies facing financial constraint. The research provides that the results involving the internal source of capital and the decision to venture is deem non-monotonic. The change in cash flow in relation to the decision to venture is less for the firms with capital limits as compared to developed firms with strong capital base and with access to external financing. There is an inverse link between the investment decision and the financial constraint and thus it impacted by the multiplier. Cash flow influence the short term funding g which portrays effect on the firms in terms of growth and development. The multiplier effect for the firms place more reliance on the short term source of funding and at the same time the firm might have an access to long term source of capital. Appraising the huge Euro data creates the strong hypothetical support for the empirical forecast. This will provide support in widening the corresponding research outcome in the literature if financial constraint and firms growth.

2.0 Aims and Objectives

research on the following key issues:The key goals of doing research entails the

  • The objective of the research is to examine firm investment decision and growth

  • growth of the companies.Theconsequence of the funding limit in firm’s

  • The relationship between positive cash flow and the extent of short term finance and the impact of the multiplier on short term financing.

Investment decision and financial constraint

bank is significant in the European testing the anticipation of the empirical model employing the euro sample since; finance from a The specific research objective on investment decision to examine the extent to which the investment of the company is going to be financed using the long term and short investment objectives as well as factors to consider that might hinder or constraint the nature of the financing decision. This is executed by

The research work therefore reviews the literature on financial constraint and firm’s growth.

Growth and financial constraint

of internal and external financing. the research objective will as well as focus on expounding whether there is variation at the time of financial difficulties companies’ venture merely presence of profitable venture with internal source of finance as well as conspiring the severity of the financial difficulties ascertained by the extent of the cash flow responsiveness to change of venture.functionResearch study focus on comprehending the companies’ investment decision under the imperfect market condition since it’s one of the major concerns of financial economics. Researching firm’s investment decision, growth and impact of financial constrain in the situation provides insight into the dynamics of the expansion as a

3.0 Literature review

he firm’s investment decision to have short term or long term investment decision based on the financial constraint at any given particular time and economic performance. T majorly affected by the financial constraint. are. It can be observed that there is a correlation between the investment decision, growth and impact of the financial constraint. Investment decision and business growth (Modigliani 1958)
the better since, the flow of money is effective and further implies that the financial constraint is less for growing company to finance their investment decisionan economic situationhe more a stable is T domestic product. gross of the effectThe decision to finance an investment objective is impacted by the growth. This is affected by the hypothesis on the

Internal finance

.he source of finance in Europe is internal funding. External funding implies the finance accessed from the public and it involves acquiring funds from the external source TThe section provides the empirical thought concerning the internal finance. Furthermore, proxies for ascertain internal; funds are detailed.

2.2.1 Theoretical consideration

the investigation of cash holdings in the empirical literature. Various researchers focus on determinants of corporate cash holding (Kim, Mauer, & Sherman, 1998; Ozkan & Ozkan, 2004; Pinkowitz & Williamson, 2001). These researchers based the study on the theory of Keynes (1936), who argued that there are two benefits to cash holdings; the transactions costs motive and the precautionary motive. Firms with financial constraint can source funds by selling asset or issuing new debt or equity. The entire alternatives entail cost. Consequently it is anticipated that firms that incur more transaction cost hold more amount of liquid asset.toInternal finance can be used in order to create cash holdings. In the presence of the perfect capital market, holding cash is irrelevant. Suppose that the cash flow of a company is insufficient for all of their future expenses. Consequence is that the company should raise funds to keep operating; it can do that at zero cost. In this frictionless environment there are no differential costs of external and internal finances, there is no liquidity premium (Opler, Pinkowitz, Stulz, & Williamson, 1999). Recently, more attention is devoted

Empirical approaches

The internal source of finance is traditionally appraised by cash flows. The proxy of cash flow is employed in dissimilar way even though it is rarely a modeling matter in the literature. The appraisal of cash flow which is mainly employed is the net income prior description.

Investment decision

of one of the assortment.investment is because of the elimination from the definition asset whether it entail fixed capital, working capital or liquid capital. Nevertheless, the important dissimilarity of the capital define investment as the extra of the Devereux 1990,The section entails hypothetical consideration concerning the investment decision where the dependence of investment decision on the availability of internal or external source of finance is discuses. According to

2.3.1 Theoretical considerations

market, the cost of external finance exceeds the cost of internal finance .The investment is expounded by the presence of financial constraint both internal and extern constraint. The following baseline model is employed to expand the magnitude of the research in researching the sensitivity of the cash market is not efficient due to financial constraint impacted by the effected of GDP and thus investment decision is influenced by the financial constraint. Because of presence imperfection in the capital market the capital structure merely impact the firm value. This perfect capital market on the basis of robust simplification is realized devoid of financial constraint. The investment decision of a firm is really impacted by financing decision in the perfect capital market. Nevertheless, the perfect possibility as well as it ought not to be affected by the presence of internal or external source of finance. As a result, in the anticipatedAccording to Modigliani & Miller (1958), the cost of capital for a firm is independent of the capital financial structure. AS a result, the market worth of a firm is independent of its capital structure. The value of a firm is on the basis of net present value. The investment decision ought to be driven merely by the

Investment=f (financial constraint, controlled variables}.

of the control variables. the literature is nevertheless vague to the application of the controlled variables.partThe model considers investment decision as

The Q-theory

permits direct assessment of anticipated worth of the future profitability employed for hypothetical justification average Q as a control investment decision. The model is therefore employed so as to appraise the investment decision, nevertheless, this is not proportional noticeable, the average Q as a hypothetical estimation that is proxies by the firm’; s market to book worth. The proxy is merely significant where it adheres the following hypothesis.
The benefit of the Tobin Q is that it employs market value and thus the model
his empirical discussion started with Fazzari et al. (1988), who used Tobin’s Q, suggested by unobservable investment decision to reinstate cost of the new venture (marginal Q). Investment decision is completely concluded on by the shadow price of the finance constraint (Marginal Q).The hypothetical research by fizzer et al (1988) who employed the model of Q-theory as a proxy for t

  • Investment decision and separation of ventures

  • Homogeneity of the finance

  • Perfect market

The Euler equation

net output as well as the cash flow. The benefit of the model is that it establishes the present investment decision on the basis of the present anticipation of the prospect possibility as well as get rids of misspecification linked with the role of financial variables
he model explains that the existing investment design is consecutive of the prior investment decision, TThe theory is linked to Q-theory nevertheless, the model get rid of bias on investment decision by excluding the marginal Q. the model is derived from the similar frequent optimization intricacy.

Financial constraints

The section entails the empirical thoughts concerning financial constraint. The assessment of the very specific definition of the notion, further the hypothetical methodology of financial constraint is discus.

Theoretical considerations

asymmetry hypothesis as well as the administrative agency theory.information between the internal and external funding decision. The wedge might be due to the blockBecause the financial constraint is rarely visible, it is a theoretical perception as well as it is not easy to provide a unique meaning. Financial constrain faced by firms is a

Empirical approach

varied level of access to funding. Financial constraint is specifying to a firm moreover, it is probable that a firm that previously had financial constraint had some hard times in acknowledging the funds. Ideal investment decision firm link between the firm and the finance exist and thus the appraisal for financial constraint must be time varying.extremely appraisal of financial constrain. Due to the anticipation of the betterThere are numerous number of specification linked with a

4.0 Methodology and data

4.1 Introduction

investment decision and the growth of European companies and whether they are financially. of tp create a deatiled overview of the functioning will be used eurozone.xls. As such, secondary sources of data especially those found on the (Bond 2004)
financially constrictinvestment decision and the growth of European companies and whether they of secondary sources of data that comprehensively address various topical issues on the examinationThis chapter depicts the approach fundamental to this study, the survey design progression and the data assortment technique employed in the research. It summarizes the examination plan used to test the intention of this study and also argue principled contemplations pertaining to data assortment. The research as a whole will be mainly dissertation using secondary dissertation for European corporations. This will constitute an

4.2 sample size.

sample was done using convenience sampling technique and the data analysis tool pack in order t ensures consistency and reliability of the Selection of the

4.3 data collection

The data was extracted in the eurozone.xls file for assessment. The first segment was concerned with getting information concerning the research (Bellone 2008). Subsection one contained the information on approach while subsection two concentrates on difficulties encountered during the study.

4.4 data assessment

The data gathered were then condensed for simplicity, reliability, standardization and wholeness and arrange in order to facilitate numbering as well as tabulation prior to closing assessment. The data was numbered and cross referenced as well as ascertained with the help of SPSS and excels data analysis tool pack. The regression model, test statistics as well as the descriptive statics in terms of percentage as well as frequency distribution was appreciated and deemed relevant due to the fact that, the approach was investigative examination and the variables were qualitative as well.

5.0 Results and Discussion

variable) is considerable higher for the companies with debt finance; less risky companies get ideal financing hence depict fewer obstacles in their growth. The link is significant in relation to one of the key argument addressed to the responsiveness to change assessment. The cash flow responsiveness to change might portray the anticipated venture chances.nd .The initial variable point out that companies that places less reliance on extern debt are comparatively smaller. The growth of net asset (2 (Bond 2004)To further have a comprehensive understanding of the firm’s traits as well as their financing situation, major traits of the companies is portrayed in the table in the appendices. Diverse in mean values of the variables including the firm are tested on the basis of t-statistic

of equity financing.form measuring the shadow expense linked to capital rising in the indexhey categorize companies on the basis of dividend payout as well as an T
. (Cleary 2006)f there is disruption consequential from venture opportunity, this might lead to a higher increase of responsiveness to change of less constrict companies. A higher progression of the comparatively less unstrained companies has been recognized by clearly 1999 and whited IWhere the secret venture opportunities might rule the investment cash flow responsiveness to change of the sample study, we might approximate a monotonic increase in responsiveness to change from completely to less constrict companies.

on the threat of the firm’s cash flows and the traits of the firm. Therefore, companies with limitation to some external funding are under-levered. dependedhe proponent explained that the presence of extra capital T more reliance on external; debt heavily even in times prior to sample time-period. The less the leverage of the more constrict companies is in relation to the findings of Faulkner and Petersen 2003.placevariable is higher for less constrict companies implying that the companies th variable) are the proxies of the latest external funding employed as an assortment criterion and the implies that the values portray the result of the companies’ assortment. The leverage as observed in the 7th &6th variable) of relatively constrict companies proof our hypothesis that the negative or zero debt is due to hardship in getting the external; source as well as not because of the sufficient cash flow that is sufficient to fund the entire project. the yearly changes in the value of the short and long term debt (5th. The least cash flows (4 (Whited 2006). Connected policy inventiveness provides the chances of new and well recognized companies to latest direction of development .it therefore implies that the probable venture project are beyond the internal financial source as well as extra external financing is capable of improving their productivity and net income. Mizzen and Vermeulen (2005) propose that as a priori classification criterion for European companies because the high net income might be a sign of financial health as well as anticipated profits which open up admittance to external funding (Lamont 2001) variable) of least constrict companies might be unique to the Euro are companies since, it is distinguished by a growth towards concentration of the financial system not merely in money market but as well in the bond market, equity market as well as banking sectorrdThe considerably higher net income growth (3

these companies rarely take any extra debt finance commitment. The principal specification employed in the research to test for the forecast of the venture cash flow responsiveness to change of the chosen companies is the error term correction model.this can as well justify the rationale why cost for the debt before the sample period as well as high. The data therefore depict that companies that tends to borrow long term debt finance are less risky and thus they are able to improve their leverage with less cost while the companies short term funding places more reliance on their internal source in the specific period are under-levered. Absolute constrict companies pay a (Lamont 2001)oyen assume more debt unlike the. Unrestrained companies because they might react to some impetus by changing their debt levelMnrestrained companies replicated by uThe

a value of 1, 2% of the entire asset .Mean and median values rarely differ that much as well as the minimum and maximum values propose that there is no coefficient of the regression might be impacted by the presence of outliers.depicts the regression. The median depict a yearly venture representing 0.1 of the starting year net asset which declines by 0.05 for relatively constrict companies. the median firm depict cash flow of 0.09 at the start of the net asset while the net income growth is 0.06.the yearly growth of net working capital inTable 4 present the descriptive statistic for the variables employed

. The single source of finance is depicted by cash flow, nevertheless, a part of its reoriented to preventive cash saving or debt repayment. For somehow constrict companies, the responsiveness to change is anticipated to be somehow higher than one consequential from leverage multiplier effect. For least constrict companies, a lesser cash flow coefficient is anticipated due to the ideal funding contract less reliant on current cash flow changes as well as by probability that entire long term venture project of the firm to be settled by the visiting financial source. (Modigliani 1958) model, the quantitative assumption of the cash flow responsiveness to change of absolute constrict companies is negativeempiricalOn the basis of the

source of funding.internal of multiplier effect and 0.79 for least constrict firm. The least coefficient is in compliance with the model forecast that the best debt contact must be minimizing the venture reliance on the existence absolute, the point estimate for cash flow of absolute constrict firm depict a value of 0.96 while 1.1.5 for average constrict firm due to the ofof the three samples, the cash flow coefficient is statistically significant as well as it firmly aids the quantitative forecast of the model. In the case
identifying limits. In everyfor lagged values of endogenous variables are applicable instrument because there no existence of serial correlation in the time change constituent of the error term of the equation. This state is fulfilled because the test for serial correlation in the initial dissimilarity residual is null and this rejected on the basis of the test for second order autocorrelation. The relevance of the employed instrument is as well conventional on the basis of the Hansen test of rd rid of by working out the initial dissimilarity unique to the GMM approximation. The 3are initially got approximate are portrayed by the t-statistic. Firm unique impact MMIn table 5, the regression output of the two step system G

variable nevertheless not statistically significant point out a mean-reversion of the venture rate. The error term is negative as usual, nevertheless not statistically significant. depended on 95% interval estimate for the average and absolute constrict companies. The negative coefficient of the lagged toThe coefficient of net income growth is highly important for the less constrict companies as well as relative

Conclusions and recommendations

venture.entire. I present non-monotonic venture cash flow responsiveness, which firmly support the model forecast. The reason is that for a higher responsiveness to change to change of partially constrict companies in relation to the absolutely constrict is double. Initially, merely a section of the internal funding are ventured because there is preventive cash saving for liquidity justification. Secondly, venture increasing the lending ability of the firm and consequently, the value of the debt depend on the cash flow impetus. The indirect leverage impact, an extra dollar of internal funding will create more than an extra dollar of the (Whited 2006)In this research, i develop an empirical model that makes quantitative forecast concerning the extent of the cash flow venture responsiveness in light of funding constraint placing emphasize on a sample of more the 5,000 Euro companies

The extent of cash flow responsiveness of the venture is less for companies with credit rationing unlike the companies that able to access short-term external funding. The inverse association is driven by the leverage multiplier impact. A positive cash flow impact enhances the short term finance capability of the firm, which afterwards depict a positive impact on venture and companies growth. Furthermore, the leverage multiplier effect is the highest for companies depending on short term lending as well as it is less for companies that can access long term funding. Assessing the large Euro is data set provides that there is strong experimental support for the hypothetical forecast. The outcome as well aids to expound some complementary conclusion in the financial constraint literature. of the European market.growth that the funding condition, light establish venture as well as the conclusion. The non-monotonic link evidenced in the research is legitimate as well under the situation of market imperfection as depicted the three classes of constrict companies. I provide both the empirical and hypothetical evidence for non-monotonic venture cash flow responsiveness to change from a new point of view. The approximated cash flow responsiveness lead to the (Whited 2006) partially in the presence of entirely constrict companies with nil responsiveness to change. Unrestrained companies by definition have nil responsiveness inn present worlds none of the companies operate in perfect market situationemphasizes less reliant on existing cash flow impetus and some of the firm are able to fund many of the positive net worth project with the aid of external funding but internal source of finance turns to be a significant source of finance evidenced by significantly firm direct impact. The non-monotonic link of the prior empirical literature place isoyen (2004). furthermore ,i recognize a group of the least constrict companies above to request cheaper source of capital for which the responsiveness to change is less unlike those with less ideal credit contract’s found a substantiation that the favourable funding contract MThe conclusion is in line with the intensification impact of Almeida and Campello (2006) as well as the leverage impact depicted by carpenter and Petersen (2002) and

operation form borrowed equity And well as advance the effectiveness of companies serious consideration in order to minimize the component cost of capital into decision. Financial constrain might affect business operation hence an ideal mix of debt and equity by any firm must be taken financing capital structure is therefore deeming significant in the The optimalIt can therefore be concluded that the capital structure in a firm impact the extent to which a firm might be financed using either internal or extern finance.


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Note: Summary statistics of final companies’ classification is on the basis of dynamics of financial constraints.

Table 2; Companies classification

Final outcome

No. of observation

(firm years

No of companies

% of companies

Absolutely constrict companies (I.)

Partially constrict companies (II

Least constricts companies (III.)

Table 3. Summary statistics


(I. = II.)

(II. = III.)

Companies’ size (logarithm of total assets)

Net income growth

Access long-term financing at the start of period net asset

Obtained short-term credit to the beginning of period total assets

Leverage (total debt to total assets)


No. of Obs



Regression Statistics

Multiple R



Adjusted R Square


Standard Error



Significance F











Standard Error

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Lower 95.0%

Upper 95.0%










X Variable 1