Field Trip & Report Essay Example

Lecturer

The drainage design philosophy

The drainage design of the Canadian lakes seeks in determining the elements of water sensitive urban design (WSUD). WSUD is all about the integrating the cycle management of water into the urban design and planning. The water sensitive urban design seeks to manage the results of storm water towards development. This process works at all levels including the lot level, regional level and the precinct and street level with the aim of improving waterway and protecting natural resources. Some of the key principles towards water sensitive urban design approach include protecting waterways in the urban development so that the volubility of assets in the community can remain relevant to enhance support and liveability in the ecosystems that rely on them. Adding numerous benefits while minimising developments cost is another principle of WSUD. The benefits include improved safety and amenity, alternative supply and enhancing liveability through establishment of natural features. The other principle is water sensitive urban design in the Canadian lakes is managing storm water in the landscape rather than draining it all on the waterways. The managing of the storm water will reduce the frequency and volume of storm water that is to be drained in the waterways and increase increases the quality before it reaches the waterways.

Description of design components

Design components in Canada differ in terms of the nature of the lakes and also the climate change within those areas. The water sensitive urban design follows a series of procedures that is commonly used in Canada to provide liveability in the ecosystems and also to improve the natural features in the country. The elements of design components include sediment basins, bio-retention swales, bio-retention basins, infiltration measures and rain tanks.

Sediment basins

Sediment basins are ponds or dams that are used to capture sediments that are running off from building and construction sites. The building of sedimentary basins will facilitate the sediment to sink and settle down rather than having them taken away by runoff. Sediments basins are formed through embankment of construction of compacted soil from the lowest downstream points of site and storing an outlet and overflow spillway structures. They are the most cost effective measures that will facilitate treating sedimentary-laden runoff. The design considerations of sediment basins require a considerable area for it to be effective. The major factors determining the size of the basin are the design flow in regards to rainfall and the settling velocity of the sediment. The sediment basins should be designed in a way that will also cater for the peak flow runoff from the design procedures available for the sediment basins. Sediment basins should not be installed in the pathway of drainage facilities; they should be located in the up-stream and off-line of constructed water bodies and storm water systems.

Field Trip & Report

A picture showing the formation of sediment basin in Canada

Bio-retention swales

Bio-retention swales are systems that are located within and are found at the base of a swale. The main purposes of a bio-retention swale are to remove coarse and fine sediments, provide a conveyance function, removal of hydrocarbons or fine soluble particles from biological uptake, provide flow retardation for frequent and also provide a low levels of extended detention. The implementation designs of the bio-retention swales form an attractive feature in the urban development. Bio-retention systems are suited to a wide variety of soil conditions that includes the one with rare soil salinity and ground water saline operations generally designed eliminate and minimize storm water infiltration to the surrounding soil. The vegetation that grows in the surrounding environment will prevent erosion of filter mediums and will breakdown the soil through the plant growth thus preventing the clogging of the system through providing bio-films on the plants roots system that can absorb pollutants. These types of vegetation vary depending on the climatic conditions and landscape requirements.

Field Trip & Report 1

A picture showing a bio-retention swale in Canada

Bio-retention basins

Bio-retention basins are infiltration devices and facilities that are used for infiltration and treatment of storm water runoff. Bio-retention basins are made up of several layers which enable the infiltration and treatment process to take place. These basins tend to remove all the pollutants that are likely to be in the storm water. The bio-retention basins promote treatment and infiltration of storm water, reducing pollutants in runoff, decreasing of volume runoff and peak flow rates, helps in preserving base flow in streams and reducing temperature impacts of runoff. Therefore biometric basins can be used as a method in providing a solution in infiltration and treatment of storm water runoff or also in conjunction with other storm water management practices. The complete design of the bio-retention basin is designed in a careful consideration given that each component has an effect in the water sensitive urban design from the pre-treatment and drainage area, engineered soil layer, storage layer and vegetation and mulch layer. The construction of the bio-retention basin should take place during the right conditions and the engineered soil shall be premixed during the placement in order to avoid compassion and clumping.

Field Trip & Report 2

A picture showing a bio-retention basin

Rain water tanks

Rain water storage and harvesting through tanks in Canada has been prominent issue among the general public. With the increased harsh weather conditions, there is need to harvest the rainy water. The rainy water storage in the Canada through the water sensitive urban design will facilitate easy supply of water, adding value home and offering a stock of water. Rainy water tanks are designed and constructed from any form of materials including plastics and fibreglass. Most of the world top water tanks storage components are made up of with scientific engineered components that enables the potable water storage. The installation of water management tanks can be mandatory or as to the approval of governing bodies. Rainy water storage can be used in built to provide thermal mass and offer a large assistance in supply of water when rainy season begin to diminish. The designs of these water tanks should be chosen based on the climatic conditions and due to the availability of rainy water.

Field Trip & Report 3

A picture showing water tank collection

Infiltration measures

Infiltration measures refer to the system designed that will allow water to infiltrate into surrounding soil. The purposes of infiltration measures is to encourage storm water to infiltrate into surrounding soils, reducing runoff and provide retention and detention functionality. The design implementation process of the infiltration is highly dependent on local soil characteristics that are fitted with sandy soil to infiltrate underground water. The infiltration measures require a significant pre-treatment of the storm water before it is infiltrated to avoid clogging with the soil. The infiltration measures are fitted with permeable soils that are capable of infiltrating at a sufficient time range. The use of infiltration measures will enable adjustable tension setting, low volume of water and hydraulic properties on site determination.

Functions of drainage components

The drainage components help in providing storage facilities as a water catchment area. Through the adoption of water tanks in Canada, rainy water can be harvest and stored for future use. Drainage components also improve the use of environmental process and decreasing environmental hazards through offering steady and flexible services. Environment will therefore be in service catered and there will be proper drainage facilities in the region. Improvement of international acceptable criteria helped in recognition of the issues affecting the citizens in the country. Study gained in solving the imbalance state of climatic conditions and the landscape.

Maintenance issues

The maintenance issue in the drainage components starts right away from the inception of the projects in Canada. The maintenance issues in the drainage components include erosion control where water causes erosion of soil and there is need to control it; maintenance issue in drain pipe cleaning, drainage construction where new construction pipes have to be replaced for the worn out pipes serving as drainage facilities, street sweeping which facilitate environmental cleanliness and storm water management facilities ensure to maintain all the storm water management practises.

Technical issues

Being aware of the side effects of poor drainage system in a county brings the remedies. Cracking and erosion occurring during draining process put intense pressure on the construction foundation rendering it to unexpected problems. In consideration of the remedies obtained in the drainage system, not all properties subjected to this will be enjoyed but they can be protected through the storm water and rainy session. In order to ensure proper drainage there must be gutters in the households that will direct rainy water pouring from the house roofs and foundation, unblocked and clear exterior drainages, hiring professional experts to inspects the drainage systems in the country, wood structures and seal concretes should be incepted to provide coating protection, ensuring water runoff is clearly directed to the drainage systems and the design of the structures and landscape should support water ends in the drainage components systems.