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Coordination for reaching a given object is characterized by eye movement, brains and movements of the hands. There is synchronous activation of muscle response which makes inertial characteristics more important in the final movements to reach or grasp an object. When individual make movements of the arm to reach an object, they first perceive the distance of coverage and finally a given set of muscles are activated to propel the arm towards the object. When someone is about to grasp a given object, it depends on the texture, size location and shape and also the number of body segments involved to grip the object, such as arms, hands and fingers.

Performing the Skills

When reaching and grasping for a glass of water, the individual will process the information about the position of the glass, its tactility and its surface. Fraser (1998) writes that sensory information is passed to the cortex where appropriate motor movements are planned and generates muscle movements that are directed to the right muscle position in the arm, shoulders and fingers. Whitney (2005) writes that the stimulus to reach and grasp any object such as glass is given by the goal orientation of the individual which could be thirst in this case. According to Hart (2003), when the glass is empty, the load of the glass is informed by the sensory information to anticipate for a lesser force to be involved in lifting. His limbic system will therefore modulate the motor control to the skeletal muscles which will initiate the grip of the glass.

According to Van (1999), the texture of the load will determine the reach and grasp force applied when lifting the object. When grasping a more slippery object such as wet cake soap, the forces applied on the fingertips is controlled precisely so as to maintain hold and avoid slip. Sober (2005) postulates that grip control forces when manipulating an object, will involve delicate interplay of mechanism between sensory and anticipatory feedback. Sensory information from the slippery texture of the wet soap cake will send texture information senses to the mechanism of anticipatory motor commands which will increase grasp force lest slip occurs.

Peters (1998) writes that accuracy and postural factors will enhance the motor control skills required to reach and grasp a static object, in this case a tennis ball. Reaching the tennis ball and grasping it is a simple movement which will be determined by postural stability to enable successful grip. While bending to reach for the ball, postural constraints and accuracy will determine whether the ball will be picked accurately or not. Gauthier (2003) adds that more accuracy factors will yield fast duration of the phase of transport in reaching for the ball. When reaching and grasping such as soccer ball, the major influencing factor for reaching and grasping the ball is the visual attention. Vigilance to the ball direction will facilitate the detection that will put the individual in the rightful attentiveness to reach and grasp the ball.

Re- Performing the Skills after Injury

Jeffery (2010) argues that after injury, the performing of a given task is constrained to the degree that mobility will be hampered. When reaching and grasping for the soccer ball after injury, the hand can remain flat, and only one finger will be extended for grasping the ball when it’s in motion. Gripping that will involve use of fingers will be constrained; this is because much of the motor control is performed by the arms proximal part. According to Martin (2004), the fingertips will lack the precise force because of weaker strength of the anticipatory mechanism that coordinates with sensory information to allow open grip of the objects, the thumb and the other fingers will be in a closed mode; this will result in the slip of the objects that will require a finger grip. Postural constraints will be high in the task of reaching and grasping the tennis ball, because it is a small round object. Lee (2002) notes that the state of posture to plan for movement to pick the object (ball) will restrain accuracy of picking it hence it will take a longer transportation phase to attain the goal of grasping the object (ball). The level of vigilance will be low when reaching for the soccer ball in motion; this will then hamper gripping the ball precisely.

In conclusion, the behaviour of motor processes involved in reaching and grasping depends on factors such as, the size of the object, the texture, attentiveness of the individual and the amount of the force that could be applied on lifting the object. The sensory information provided by these factors prepares the limb muscles to take the right movements towards reaching and gripping the object in question.


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