Extra page for Research higher work pressure, lower job saitsfaction Essay Example

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  1. Introduction:

During this era of globalization, more organizations are giving precedence to employee’s performances than a decade ago. Thus, organizations tend to keep selectively recruiting and retaining high performing employees who are talented and able to compete in the increasingly competitive global market (Shah Shah, Jaffari, Aziz, Ejaz&Ul-Haq, 2011). Therefore it can be stated that employee performance can be defined as a major concern for current-day business organizations and a distinct factor for successful organizations. However, there are many other factors that embody job characteristics like job satisfaction and work pressure affect and mediate effective employee performance and work productivity (Bemana, Moradi, Ghasemi, Taghavi & Ghayoor 2013).

To be clear, previously, many researchers noticed and highlighted the linkage between work pressure and job satisfaction levels globally. This is illustrated in work stress survey by the Harris Interactive, which showed that in United States, there is an increasing level of work stress for current employees due to pressure at work, from 73 percent in 2012 to 83 percent in 2013 (The Huffington, 2013). This is in line with the findings by Karimi and Alipour (2011) that job stressors tend to increase globally in all sectors of the economy because of globalization. For example, in United States, businesses paid more than US $150 billion annually for occupational stress due to employee absenteeism, lost productivity, as well as low performance levels.

Moreover, a large number of the research has examined work stressors, such as interpersonal demands, role demands, task demands, uncertainty, and stressful structure in organizations. While a large body of researchers has sought to determine the relationship between pressure and job satisfaction, a few have examined specifically job satisfaction due to workload pressure (Bakker &Demerouti, 2007; Chung & Chun 2015). Yet, the issue of workload remains substantially unexplored. However, this creates an opportunity for this paper to take further evidences in proving the relationship.

Based on this rationale, the aim of this paper is to examine whether high work pressure lowers job satisfaction levels in employee. The findings in this paper will help organizations to effectively improve for job satisfaction by preventing stressors that lead to work pressures. In addition, with the findings, organizations can clearly clarify worker’s roles, as well as focus on strategies implementation that helps to decrease work overloads in specific.

Therefore the research question for this paper is:

“To what extent do employees with high work pressure differ from employees with lower work pressure when it comes to employee satisfaction?”

  1. Theoretical framework

Under this section, work pressure and job satisfaction are discussed in-depth to establish their relationship, which means high work pressure leads to lower levels of satisfaction.

    1. Work pressure

While politicians and policymakers currently worry about the rising rates of unemployment and underemployment rates, there are a growing numbers of employees who are under pressure to work more (Frauenheim 2011). This has resulted to a “work-more economy” that is threatening the health of workers and long-term organisational success. With this negative implication, work pressure can be considered as a challenge to organisations and its members (Frauenheim 2011).

. Bakker &Demerouti 2007) When it comes to time pressure, employees who are exhausted by own works due to high job demands are likely to high work pressure (The vital dimensions that fall within the scope of this study include time pressure, and work overload (Bakker &Demerouti, 2007; Chung & Chun, 2015).Both Park (2007) and Demerouti (2004) defined work pressure as detrimental emotional and physical responses that happen when the job requirements are viewed by the employees as leading to repressive conditions or, mental and physical distress, specifically when these conditions fail to match the employees’ needs, resources, and capabilities.

The demand-control model suggests that job strain result from the disruption of the equilibrium between the task demands the workers are exposed to relative to the resources at their disposal. Essentially therefore, a mix of high job demands due to work overload and time pressure and low locus of control are what constitutes the notion of high work pressure.

    1. Job satisfaction

Khuzaeni, Idrus and Solimun (2013) define job satisfaction as the positive emotional attitude or an expression of contentment from an employee’s assessment of work and work experience. The positive emotional attitude or feeling is reflective of adjustment between what the employees expect and the actual work conditions.

Unmilola, Sola and Olusola (2013) stated that there are different dimensions of job satisfaction including work conditions, pay and compensation, and job supervision. In addition Kusku (2001) examined the dimension of work conditions on job satisfaction and established that the work environment has a great effect on determining job satisfaction and employee performance, which means good work conditions promote job satisfaction. Aside from that, Unmilola et al. (2013) examined the dimension of pay, and compensation and how it influence job satisfaction. His findings suggested that pay is instrumental in satisfying employees’ higher-level needs hence promoting satisfaction with work. Along with previous research, Mansoor et al. (2011, “p.50-2”) found that the greater the level of financial reward, the less the employees worried about financial state hence improving satisfaction with work.

    1. The relationship between work pressure and job satisfaction

the stress–strain–outcome (SSO) model, Conservation of Resources Theory (COR), and the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Many Studies examined the link between work pressure and job satisfaction (Park 2007; Unmilola, Sola &Olusola 2013; Mansoor, Jinnah &Fida 2011). According to Rehman et al. (2012), job satisfaction implies the level in which people feel positive regarding their job relative to other jobs. This research further established that low job satisfaction is significant indicator of decrease in employee productivity and high work pressures. Here, the link between work pressure and job satisfaction can be explained using three theories, including

The Job Demands–Resources (JD–R) model seeks to combine two comparatively independent research traditions, the motivation research tradition, and the stress research tradition (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). The theory suggests that job demands trigger off health impairment process while the job resources trigger off a motivational process. The model further identifies the interaction between resources and demand, and may as well predict burnout and of work engagement experiences at work (Demerouti and Bakker 2011).

The key assumption of the theory, as Demerouti and Bakker (2011) explains, is that each occupation has inherent risk factors linked to job-related stress, which are classifiable into two categories: Job demands and job resources. Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Demerouti and Schaufeli (2007) also explain that at the centre of the theory lies the supposition that while all kinds of occupations have their own causal factors for employee’s well-being, such factors are classifiable in two general job demands category and job resources category.

Job demands consist of the organizational, social and physical, and social work dimensions that demand prolonged physical and psychological effort. Hence, they are linked to psychological and physiological costs (Demerouti & Bakker, 2011).

Job resources consist of the organizational, social and physical, and social work dimensions that serve to achieve work-related objectives and minimise job demands and related physiological and psychological costs. They motivate personal development and growth (Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Demerouti & Schaufeli, 2007).

Hence, when the high job demands require continual employee effort, they tend to exhaust employee resources, resulting to high work pressure, and fatigue and health problems, or what Bakker and Demerouti (2007) describes as “psychological strain at work.” In Bakker and Demerouti’s (2007) view,high work pressures due to low job control and high job demands lead to low levels of job satisfaction.

The above discussions lead to the assumption that
high work demands corresponds directly to the quantity of workload and the time limitations needed for completion of work. However, it also points to the concept of “low control,’ which Habibi, Poorabdian and Shakerian (2015) interpret as meaning a lack of decision making authority at the workplace.

An underlying conclusion from the above explanations is that when workers who face high demands are given less control yet encounter higher workloads, the stress level increases leading to “psychological strain at work,”such as fatigue, and more exhaustion. In relation to the research question, it is reasoned that employees with high work pressure differ from employees with lower work pressure as they are less satisfied. Put differently, when employees have a high workload, it can be stated that they have more job demands and are less able to deal with those demands due to fatigue and exhaustion. Therefore, they will be less satisfied.

Secondly, the stress–strain–outcome (SSO) model, which was suggested by Koeske and Koeske (1993), illustrates the relationship among stress, strain, and their impacts. The theory posits that workplace stressors like workloads may cause work pressure whose outcome is lack of job satisfaction (Chung & Chun 2015). In this case, work pressure has significant link to job satisfaction. Individuals who perceive jobs to be physically demanding and less satisfactory are more likely to be poorly motivated at work and less productive. At the same time, high pressure lead to unmotivating job setting that in turn lead to job dissatisfaction (Habibi, Poorabdian&Shakerian 2015).

Finally, the Conservation of Resources Theory (COT) was suggested by StevanHobfoll (1989). This theory provides a framework for understanding how work pressure brings about stress at work (Mansoor Jinnah &Fida 2011). The theory hypothesizes that people will always make an effort for acquisition, retention, protection, and fostering of things that they value at work in order to navigate through life challenges and demands, without which they are likely to experience work stress (Mansoor Jinnah &Fida 2011). Employees with less control over what they do or what they aspire to achieve tend to face tough demands yet have minimal control over how they want the work performed and the aspects of work that they value. Such employees are likely to face high exhaustion and fatigue as well as anxiety (Habibi, Poorabdian&Shakerian 2015).

Based on tests from above theories including Job demand-resources, the stress-strain-outcome and Conservation of resources theory, it is found out that work pressure leads to lower levels of satisfaction. Therefore the following hypothesis is formulated:

Employees who experience high work pressure are less satisfied than employee who experience lower work pressure.

Reference list

Bakker, A., &Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: state of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology,22(3), 309-328. doi: 10.1108/02683940710733115

Bemana, S., Moradi, H., Ghasemi, M., Taghavi, S., &Ghayoor, A. (2013).The relationship among job stress and job satisfaction in municipality personnel in Iran.World Applied Sciences Journal, 22(2), 233-238.

Chung, Y., & Chun, J. (2015). Workplace stress and job satisfaction among child protective service workers in South Korea: Focusing on the buffering effects of protective factors.Children and Youth Services Review, 57,134-140.

Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A. (2011). The Job Demands–Resources model: Challenges for future research. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 37(2), pp2-9

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A., &Bulters, A. (2004). The loss spiral of work pressure, work–home interference and exhaustion: Reciprocal relations in a three-wave study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, 131–149. doi: 10.1037/a0027050

Frauenheim, E. (2011).Today’s Workforce—Pressed and Stressed. Retrieved 6 Dec, 2015 from: <http://www.workforce.com/articles/today-s-workforce-pressed-and-stressed>

Habibi, E., Poorabdian, S.,&Shakerian, M. (2015).Job strain (demands and control model) as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors among petrochemical personnel.Journal Educational Health Promotion, 4(16).doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.154034

Karimi, R., &Alipour, F. (2011). Reduce job stress in organizations: Role of locus of control.International Journal of Business and Social Science,2(18), 232-236. doi: 10,5539/ gjhs.v8n6p55

Khuzaeni, M., Idrus, M., &Solimun, D. (2013).The influence of work culture, work stress to the job satisfaction and employees performance in the state treasury service office in Jakarta, Indonesia.Journal of Business and Management, 9(2), 49-54.

Kusku, F. (2001). Dimensions of employee satisfaction: A state university example.METU Studies in Development,28(3), 399-430.

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The Huffington, (2013), Work stress on the rise: 8 In 10 Americans are stressed about their jobs, survey finds. Retrieved 12 Nov, 2015 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/10/work-stress-jobs-americans_n_3053428.html?ir=India&adsSiteOverride=in.

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Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A., Demerouti, E. & Schaufeli. W. (2007). The Role of Personal Resources in the Job Demands-Resources Model. International Journal of Stress Management 14(2), 121–141