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Type 2 Diabetes In People Above The Age Of 45 Years

Type 2 Diabetes In People Above The Age Of 45 Years

Diabetes refers to a condition whereby the body is not able to produce enough insulin for normal functioning, or the body cells become resistant to insulin. Insulin refers to a hormone produced by the pancreas and has a significant role in glucose metabolism. It regulates the way the body utilizes glucose either in the form of energy of storage as fats (Kohei 2010). It means that glucose in the blood is not utilized for energy production, and the high blood sugar causes a person to get thirsty, urinate frequently, and feel exhausted all the time. Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent a month the people above the age of 45 years.

Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial
disease, and the causes include both genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors include a family history of the disease. The pathogenesis involves genetic disorder in the genes that encode regulatory system of glucose metabolism (Nolan, Damm & Prentki 2011). It is majorly assocai4ted with obesity, and the cases of type 2 diabetes are rapidly rising across the globe. Obesity refers to a condition that is linked with having excessive body fat and is mainly caused by eating excess calories with less physical activity. Obesity causes low-grade inflammation in the body that contributes to the development of cardiovascular disorders. Also, abdominal fat alters body response to insulin resulting in insulin resistance. It is reported that being overweight causes stressing of individual cells and interfering with ER network. When the ER is required to handle nutrients in excess, it sends a signal requiring the cell to reduce insulin sensitivity that eventually contributes to insulin resistance.

Type 2 Diabetes is a fatal illness as it causes a wide range of long-term health complications. Type 2 Diabetes affects many organs in the body such as the heart, kidney, and the nerves. It is the major cause of poor visions and blindness in this population, kidney failure, and cardiovascular illnesses. Diabetes contributes to the development of cardiovascular disorders such as stroke and atherosclerosis (Mazzone, Chait & Plutzky 2008). Excess sugar damages the walls of blood capillaries that provide nutrients to all parts of the body. It begins as tingling pain that mainly affects the toes and gradually affects the entire leg. Failure to effectively manage type 2 diabetes causes loss of all sense of feeling for the affected regions.

Nerve damage causes problems such as nausea, diarrhea, and erectile dysfunction in males. By damaging the blood capillaries in the retina, type 2 diabetes causes blindness and other fatal conditions such as glaucoma. Hearing impairment is prevalent in people suffering from type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes exposes a person skin complications caused by bacteria and fungi. Also, it is reported that type 2 diabetes contributes to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. The kidney is composed of numerous blood capillary systems that carry out the role of blood filtration. Type 2 Diabetes and destroy this filtration system (Fowler 2008). Severed destructions cause kidney failure that can only be solved with dialysis, or a kidney transplant.

Following a healthy lifestyle plays a significant role in the prevention of obesity. People above the age of 45 are characterized with excess weight due to reduced body activity. There some strategies that may assist in preventing unhealthy weight gain. Eating habits should be observed, and physical activity encouraged. Physical activity should include 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity. It is advisable to avoid foods that have high-calorie content so as to avoid excess calories in the body. Type 2 diabetes management aims at keeping the blood sugar at low normal levels of between 4-6 mmol/L. A healthy diet assists in the management of blood sugar levels. Exercises contribute to the effective functioning of insulin, reduces blood pressure, and minimizing the risk of development of cardiovascular disorders (American Diabetes Association 2010).

Also, the blood sugar level should be regularly monitored so as to determining whether the management approach is effective. In most cases, just healthy diet is not sufficient to control blood sugar. Type 2 Diabetes is a progressive illness, and with time, the body increases its insulin resistance. Metmorfin is in most cases the first drug used for management of type 2 diabetes. The working of the drug includes minimizing the level of glucose released to the blood system by the liver (‘Type 2 diabetes’ 2014). It also enhances the response of body cells to insulin. The drug is recommended for adults over 45 years who portray great risk of type 2 diabetes development. Other Drugs include Sulphonylureas, Glitazones, and Acarbose.


American Diabetes Association 2010, ‘Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus’, Diabetes care, vol. 33. No. 1 1, pp. S62-S69.

Fowler, MJ 2008, ‘Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes’, Clinical diabetes, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 77-82.

Kohei, KAK. U 2010, ‘Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its treatment policy’, JMAJ, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 41-46.

Mazzone, T, Chait, A & Plutzky, J 2008, ‘Cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus: insights from mechanistic studies’, The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9626, pp. 1800-1809.

Nolan, CJ, Damm, P & Prentki, M 2011, ‘Type 2 diabetes across generations: from pathophysiology to prevention and management’, The Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9786, pp. 169-181.

Type 2 diabetes — Treatment 2014, Available from <http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Diabetes-type2/Pages/Treatment.aspx>. [October 27, 2015].