Exam preparation Essay Example

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Exam Preparation

  1. A nurse is an individual trained to take care of the patients in a hospital or health institution.

  2. Nursing is the act of providing medical as well as other assistance to a sick individual.

  3. Florence Nightingale and Margaret Sanger

  4. The role of nurses was to care of soldiers who were injured during the war

  5. The Crimean War in 1854.

  6. Element added to WHO 1948 definition in 1978 are education regarding health problems and methods of controlling and preventing them, promotion of proper nutrition and food supply, adequate supply of clean water and fundamental sanitation; child and maternal health comprising of family planning, control and prevention of locally endemic diseases, immunization angst infectious diseases, provision of essential drugs, and treatment of common injuries and diseases.

  7. Health care models available are biomedical model and social model. Biomedical model emphasizes biological or physical aspects of illness and disease. It is linked with the diagnosis, cure as well as treatment of disease. Social model of health care addresses wider influences on health (cultural, social, economic and environmental factors) apart from injury and disease. Social model of health stretches beyond the emphasis on behavior and lifestyles and promotes the need for social change for improvement of health.

  8. Three broad categories of health care include public health, primary health care, and disease prevention. Disease prevention involve immunization and public education; public health promoting health through organized efforts as well as informed choices in society. Primary health care involves ensuring affordable and comprehensive health care.

  9. Universal health care is making sure that all people can access required preventive, promotive, rehabilitative and curative health services that are of sufficient quality while making sure that they do not suffer financial hardship when acquiring the services. All residents have to be covered by basic health care services.

  10. Sicko went to Canada, Germany, France and Great Britain.

  11. Medicare is a federal health insurance program targeting individuals who are 65 years and above and some younger people with disabilities. Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme provides subsidy for prescribed drugs. Private health insurance is divided into general treatment cover, hospital cover as well as ambulance cover. It covers the persona and members of his family.

  12. Population health is the outcomes of a group of people comprising of distribution of such outcomes in the group; it aims to improve the health of the whole human population. Public health refers to the science of protecting the safety as well as enhancing the health of communities via policy making, education and research for disease and prevention of injury. Health promotion and education refers to the profession focusing on the systems, behaviours, policies, and environments impacting health at various levels. It needs intensive specialization and training comprising of biological, psychological, environmental, physical, social and medical sciences.

  13. Epidemiology and demographic health data it is important in the understanding the health of any population since it provides data on past medical history, symptoms, laboratory testing and recent treatments. They prevent future outbreaks of diseases from occurring. It leads to further research.

  14. Population health demographic are changing in the first world countries where the older the population is more as compared to the working population. There is decline in population growth as people live longer. The aging population has increased. This is because there is increased high quality medical care, people are using family planning methods and people are unwilling to start families and give birth to children lead to dismal growth of population.

  15. Most causes of mortality in Australia are heart disease, dementia, cerebrovascular diseases and cancer

  16. The leading of cause of morbidity in Australia are ageing population, lifestyle and behavior.

  17. Most causes if morbidity in are from non-communicable disease.

  18. The differences between health issues in between Australia and global health are the approach to individual health and insurance cover.

  19. Self-regulating nursing is having nurses looking at the code of ethics of their practice without having an external body monitoring them.

  20. Accounting is important in nursing to make sure that patients are taken care of in the right manner without discrimination.

  21. Accountability is making sure that someone is answerable for his decision or action while responsibility is completing the given task according to the laid down standards.

  22. Care, cure and coordination.

  23. Three components that form the professional practice framework are cure, care and coordination.

  24. Characteristics of effective accountability and self-regulation are safe, effective and quality care.

  25. The Nurse and Midwifery Board of Australia carry out the functions that are set by the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law according to each state or territory. The Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency has the responsibility of registration as well as accreditation of ten health professions across Australia; the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council helps in protecting the health and safety of communities in Australia by ensuring high-quality standards of nursing as well as midwifery education, assessment and training. The organization is the accreditation authority in charge of accrediting education providers as well as programs of study for nursing and midwifery profession.

  26. Gibbs reflective cycle is learning by doing and it is important to nursing practice since it help nurses to make sense of situations at work and understand how they can be better as caregivers in their next tasks.

  27. Australian Nursing Midwifery Council continuing competence framework 2009 as well as the registered professional portfolio requirement ensures that enrolled and registered nurses and midwives authorized to practice in Australia have a professional mandate to ensure that they are competent to practice. Continued professional development ensures members of the professional maintain, broaden and improve their knowledge, competence and expertise and develop the professional and personal qualities needed throughout their professional lives.

  28. Non-regulated health workers are people who are not accredited professionally relevant professional bodies like personal support workers and complementary and alternative medicine. Regulated health workers have been accredited by professional bodies like RNs and GP.

  29. Regulation of health workers is important to ensure quality and professionalism in health care, unregulated health workers can lead to accidents that cause injury and loss to patients in some cases if they are unsupervised.

  30. An organization has to equip all its staff with the necessary skills and equipment to accomplish their assigned tasks.

  31. When a regulated worker breaches their standards they are accordingly punished and reproached by the professional bodies, on the other hand, the unregulated work can get away with the breach since they are no regulations that he works under.

  32. Teamwork is important in nursing and healthcare since it entails many people, it is multidisciplinary and required a lot coordination and cooperation from everyone.

  33. Five stages of Tuckman’s group formation stages include forming, storming, norming and performing. At forming people come together to form a group they are positive and polite, at storming conflicts emerge among the members, norming involves developing of regulation and guideless to direct the group, and performing is when the project of the group starts. Adjourning is when the work of the group comes to an end.

  34. BELBIN discussed individual characteristics in teams such that understanding them can lead to improvement of team performance. Teams can be unbalanced f all team members possess similar styles of teams roles or behavior.

  35. Three styles of leaders include participative leader, transformational leader and situational leader.

  36. Transactional leaders emphasize on the impact of supervision, group performance and organization. They care about status quo and every-day progress towards a common goal. Transformational leaders, on the other hand, work to improve the motivation as well as engagement of followers through directing their behavior to shared vision.

  37. Characteristics of effective teams include utilization of resources, maintenance of internal processes and attaining specific outcomes. The team is characterized by commitment, trust, constructive conflict and accountability.

  38. Characteristics of ineffective teams include absence of cohesion, negativity, unequal membership, unconstructive criticism, pursuing personal goals and presence of dominant figure.

  39. Interprofessional patient-centered care ensures collaborative approach to health care delivery.

  40. A nurse demonstrates interprofessional respect while working in a health team through demonstrating cooperation and consulting with others.

  41. A nurse demonstrates effective interprofessional communication through reporting to relevant authority and discussing openly encountered problems.

  42. Interprofessional goal sharing is importance for patients because it improves quality service delivery.

  43. Good interprofessional practice affect patient outcomes by ensuring more lives are saved through proper care.

  44. Competence is having the necessary skills to complete the task.

  45. Codes of practice guide the operations of nurses in their operation.

  46. Code of ethics defines the conduct of a nurse as a caregiver while code of professional conduct gives guidelines of how nurses have to conduct themselves professionally.

  47. Codes of ethics have the purpose of ensuring nurses are humane and compassionate in their profession.

  48. Code of professional conduct ensures there is professionalism in the conduct of the nurses and all efforts are made to save lives.

  49. The national standards are the fundamental requirements set out by the national government health care system.

  50. Two of the Nursing and Midwifery Board Guidelines include guidelines for mandatory notifications and guidelines for advertising regulated health services.

  51. Seven main areas which make up the standards include

  52. In a hospital are where the regulated staff do not have to adhere to any standards there will be total chaos and the many patients can lose their lives on account of negligence.

  53. The importance of scope for a registered nurse stipulated the duties of the registered nurse, where he has to operate from, the patient he can attend to and the needs of the healthcare.

  54. Recency of practice calls for midwives and nurses to have recent experience practicing their profession as well as make sure their professional skills are up to date and current.

  55. Where nurses are working outside their scope there can be mistakes or fatigue owing to covering areas not entitled to.

  56. The purpose of decision-making framework is providing a guideline towards reaching a solution.

  57. National principles guide the conduct of nurses and midwives to make sure they act professionally in their duties.

  58. Using Decision making template tool makes it easy for decision making.

  59. Decision-making Framework is useful to nurses since it provides an approach of solving problems.

  60. The decision-making framework guides the nursing practice decisions.

  61. Flowchart enables the nurses to accomplish tasks effectively.

  62. A RN can delegate accountability to the nursing assistant.

  63. A nursing assistant can delegate a patient care to a social worker.

  64. Clinical governance Refers to a framework through which organizations are accountable for continuously enhancing quality of their services as well as safeguarding high standards of care.

  65. Guiding principles for clinical governance include accountability, emphasis on learning, teamwork and openness about error and failures.

  66. Four pillars of clinical governance include risk management, clinical audit, evidence-based care and effectiveness, and staffing and staff management.

  67. The pillars are importance because since they strengthen service delivery.

  68. Quality cycle refers to a participatory management technique that enlists the assistance of employees in solving problems related to their own jobs.

exam preparation

  1. Clinical risk is identifying the circumstances as well as opportunities than can put patients at risk of harm.

  2. Three examples of risk management include identification of the risk, assessing the frequency and severity of the risk, eliminating the risks and assessing the costs saved through reducing the risk.

  3. Swiss cheese model is used for analysis of medical errors and patient safety incidents.

  4. Three examples of systems approach to risk management that can be seen in a ward include risk avoidance, risk mitigation and transfer of risk.

  5. The resident nurse is responsible for clinical governance.

  6. Socially nursing is affected by the people in the society who decide to enter into the nursing profession, politically governments comes up with policy to guide service delivery and economically there is money set aside for the nursing profession.

  7. The average age of nurses in Australia is 44.6 years.

  8. Historically nurses have not been allowed to be autonomous of have real power owing to the impact the have on care-giving to the society.

  9. Education moved to universities in Australia in 1867.

  10. This has led to improvement of quality of healthcare quality delivery since then owing to more professional training.

  11. Consumer expectations and involvement has changed by going up.

  12. Technology influences nursing by increasing efficiency, service delivery and research and development.

Section 1

Section 2

  1. Victims of catastrophic environmental disasters like Tsunamis or earthquakes, the first need is to ensure that they are safe, so safety comes first through evacuation and provision of emergency services. The second need to be attended to is medical care where those injured are treated. Food, shelter and clothing come in next where a safe place is found where they can eat and sleep. Psychological needs come in where the victims need counseling to get back to their normal lives.

  2. Universal healthcare is providing access to fundamental healthcare services to all residents without discrimination.

Section 3

  1. exam preparation  1A,

B. Reflection is very important to a nurse’s practice because it provides an opportunity for nurses to evaluate their service delivery to patients and think about ways of improving the services. Reflection provides an opportunity for chance for nurses and also is an learning process that facilitates adaptation.

  1. A. Swiss cheese model is used for analysis of medical errors and patient safety incidents

B. the Swiss cheese model encourages appropriate and thorough evaluation of adverse events in helping to prevent future occurrences.

C. in the hospital the resident nurses and the head of the institution are in charge of clinical governance.

D. There are emergency doors in cases of incidents, fire extinguishers have been installed, slippery floors are dried in time and patients and educated about their safety while in hospitals. Thorough cleanness is encouraged throughout.