Evidence for health care practice Essay Example

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Progressive Work 2

University Affiliation

Progressive Work 2

Content to include in a discharge plan

Content include information on prostate cancer, diagnosis, means of how patient can access additional information, written and verbal communication at the level of client and family understanding on diet, medications, treatment, activities, follow-up appointments, and health teaching such as symptoms and sign that require contact of doctor when observed, besides health perception, and sleep (Templeton and Coates, 2004). Also include discharge instructions, possible and anticipated post discharge needs for prostate cancer patients and how to deal with them, possible resources for continuum of care, and community resources (Barbara, 2009). Other information includes potential side effects of treatment, available treatments, and risks (Templeton and Coates, 2001). Instruction and explanations for instructions given to client and family both verbally and written and follow up care arrangement plan, home environment safety and skills for self care such as catheter care use and goals such as active treatment participation, pain control, following therapeutic plan, management of bowel and bladder functions (Barbara, 2009).

Educational strategies incorporated in the discharge plan

Educational strategies include allowing patient to decide on speed of delivery of intervention, repeating information as required, use of simple language and simple explanations, and respecting silence (Templeton and Coates, 2004). Kynoch, 2008 posit that use of audit and feedback strategies are important in facilitating translation of research evidence into routine care and these should also be incorporated as an education strategy. Use of verbal and written instructions, video education, web based instructions, computerized interactive e-components training card and posters and teaching designed for adult learner andragogy and gerontologic older adults need to know why they are learning something before learning, bring sets of experiences that provide references for learning, need to see how learning applies to their life, respond to internal motivators such as self-esteem and improved quality of life (Barbara, 2009). Follow up to ensure understanding, compliance and retention. Ensure attention and concentration, and learning motivation besides use of formal and informal teaching methods. Barbara (20090 suggest gerogogic learners respond to frequent feedback, need encouragement and structure, are outcome oriented, respond to family encouragement, motivated by personal goal and needs and other characteristic that must be recognized in the formulation of educational strategies.

How researchers acted in accordance with ethical principles and conduct

Research has merit in design using observation, which is appropriate to achieve aim of proposal. Respect for patients and justice evident through selection process, beneficence evident in recognition of welfare of participants by leaving out subjects from emergency room thus avoiding placing unjust burden on participants while being sensitive to their welfare (Australian National Statement on Ethical Conduct, 2007). Ethical principles and conduct evident include avoiding conflict of interest, seeking approval from the ethics committee and acquiring informed consent from participants, while providing patients with information about the study (Cicolini et al, 2009).

Ethical issues associated with this study

Australian National Statement on Ethical conduct in human research (2007) recognize some of the ethical issues associated with human research design, methods, activities, participants, research process, and proposal as integrity, research merit, respect, beneficence and justice. At proposal, research should have merit, evident in aim of research to add knowledge on reduction of thrombophlebitis. Integrity is an issue based on conduct and how researcher relates to participants. Informed consent for participants entails providing crucial information on purpose of research, with participation clearly voluntary and within laws. Also, competence to consent and withdrawal at will and selection of participants leaving out those from emergency rooms and with blood infection highlights the ethical issues of procedural justice and beneficence besides risk and benefit determination and minimization. Conflict of interest is a possible issue at individual level and at institutional level influence. Validity and reliability in study including selection of participants, a methodology proving a rationale for the selection of participants, and adequate numbers enhance validity add to ethical issues associated with study (NHMRC, 2007). Avoiding bias and objectivity in research are other issues in quantitative studies (Xiao). Confidentiality and subject anonymity achieved through data coding is crucial for objectivity (Grant & Giddings, 2002)


Templeton, H., Coates, V. 2003. Informational needs of men with prostate cancer on hormonal manipulation therapy, patient Education and counseling 49, 243-256.

Carter, N., Bryant, D., Alba, D., Jennifer, B & Alan, J. 2011. The supportive care needs of men with advanced prostate cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, vol. 38, No. 2

Templeton and Coates. 2001. Adaptation of an instrument to measure the information needs of men with prostate cancer. Methdological issues in nursing research.

Templeton, H & Coates, V 2004, ‘Evaluation of an evidence-based education package for men with prostate cancer on hormonal manipulation therapy’, Patient Education and Counseling, Vol. 55, no. 1, pp.55-61.

National health ad Medical research Council and Australian Vice Chancellors Commitees. 2007. National Statement on ethical conduct in human research. Australian Government.

Cicolini, G., Bonhi, A. P., Di labio, l. & Di Macio, R. 2009. Position of peripheral venous cannulae and the incidence of thrombophelebities: an observational study. Journal of Advanced nursing, 65 96), 1268-1273.

Xiao, L. Week 4 tutorial: Research methods used in quantitative studies.

Grant, M & Giddings, L 2002, ‘Making sense of methodologies: A paradigm framework for the novice researcher’, Contemporary Nurse, Vol 13, pp. 10-28.

Kynoch, K 2008, ‘Implementation of a glucose management protocol to prevent hypo-and hyperglcaemia in critically ill patients’, Evidence Based Health care, Vol 6, pp. 468-475.

Barbara, K.T, 2009, ‘Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concepts’. 9 ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.