Evaluating information sources

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Artificial Intelligence/ Robotics

vol. 303, no. 4, pp. 54-59Scientific American, Anderson, Michael & Anderson, Susan .Leigh. 2010, ‘Robot be Good’,

The authors argue that in future robots will play a significant role in people’s lives however; there is a need for them to adhere to ethical principles in doing so. The article notes that robots, for most cases, make autonomous decisions like the ones being designed to help the elderly in their homes. The perfect way to ensure that they interact with human beings at every level is to ensure that they are programmed with general ethical principles so that they use them to make efficient decisions on a case-by-case basis. In fact, while robots are not programmed with human-like emotions; they are expected to come up with effective decisions related to ethical reasons that are mostly guided by emotions. The authors proposes artificial intelligence approaches in order to generate the principles themselves through the preventing them from certain cases of ethically acceptable situations using intensive and integrated logic. For purposes of programming ethical principles into a sample robot, the authors adopt an artificial technique called machine learning; which direct machines to comprehend an algorithm that ascertains to the fact that human beings only perceive specific cases to be ethically upright. It consequently uses inductive logic where the learning process of the robot is set to be conducted at the time where there appears software design and, also a resultant ethical principle is then encoded into the robots internal memory.

Carroll, Chris & Aguilera-Hellweg, Max, 2011, ‘Us. And them’, National Geographic, vol. 220, no. 2, pp. 66-85

This article notes that robots are now being created to think and act like the human beings. The author particularly take note of an Actroid-DER android developed in Japan that can be used to serve the purpose of a futuristic spokes model at major corporate events. It is deemed to serve the role that does not necessarily require intensive levels of character at all. The prototype robot is set to be even more improved by adding a distinctive female personality into it and going further to name her thus ascertaining its human-like attributes. In essence, the improvements of the robot seems to shift intensive focus from realism to believability aspect; it forms part of a newer generation of robots or rather artificial beings that are directed towards functioning not necessarily as programmed industrial machines but rather as autonomous agents that are deemed to be capable of assuming different roles in such places as homes, schools and offices that were in the past being carried out by human beings. Of particular interest, a paradigm shift has been construed to focus on improving robot capability so that they can function properly by way of conducting an alternative set of scenarios in order to come up with representations of objects that are distinctively stored within the memory in a matter of tens of thousands a second within any given scenario at hand. Compared to the conventional robots that are specifically programmed to execute certain precise sequences of tasks but only restricted within a certain structured environment, the prototype robot HERB is developed to cope up with unfamiliar objects and thereafter move around without colliding with human beings; who are always in motion state. In truth, the ability to differentiate between objects between HERB and conventional robots lies in the fact that it is able to assimilate intensive levels of information before going forward to process it in a more intelligent manner in the scenario where everything has particular distinguishable attributes.

Ingrand, Felix and Ghallab, Malik, 2014. Robotics and artificial intelligence: A perspective on deliberation functions. AI Communications, vol.27, no.1, pp.63-80

The article notes that despite there being an intensive level of synergy that exists between robotics and AI at the earlier periods, they digressed in a high degree but now there is a revival of interest in the already set out domain of embodied machine intelligence that is specifically related to the provision of more mature techniques from all areas as well as the presence of accessible robot within the underlying platforms that have distinctive and sophisticated sensory motor capacities as well as an almost perfect comprehension of the numerous challenges related to the AI-Robotics intersections. The article provides an enormous contribution to this revival mechanism between AI and Robots and goes ahead to propose the importance of assessing problems as well as approaches in order to come up with autonomous and deliberate actions in robotics. In fact, this article encourages the wider understanding of intentional functions since it provides for a synthetic perspective on aspects related to planning; acting and perception; monitoring and goal reasoning. It also seeks to establish matters related to integrative architecture that is established and presented through enormous levels of contributions that seeks to address intentional deliberation of from AI-Robotics viewpoint. The author notes that deliberation functions in robotics focuses on purposeful and planned level of actions that are conducted in order to accomplish some selected and set objectives. It is established that most of the robotics applications do not necessarily require a set of deliberation capacities like in the case of fixed robots found within the manufacturing environments, and other devices that are restricted to only a single form of task; it is indeed required in autonomous robotics that are developed to execute distinctive varieties of environments as well as a diversity of tasks. For that case, this article sets out to argue that robotics or rather artificial intelligence is meant to go beyond the normal operations of traditionally-made robots that were only focused on conducting simple and sole tasks. Artificial intelligence seeks to make it easier for the human beings to relate well with these machines since they can almost execute roles in a distinctive and direct manner. Future research indicates that the gist of artificial intelligence model would be focused on impacting human attributes in a much ethical manner as opposed to only focusing on doing tasks for them. This way, the future of AI is paramount and almost certain.