Ethics and sustainability analysis assignment 3 Essay Example
ETHICS AND SUSTAINABILITY
The increasing rate of food insecurity across global nations is one of the most stupendous sustainability issue.
Through time, global food insecurity is becoming one of the most threatening issue that attempts to challenge the general ecosystem sustainability conditions. Essentially, food is critical than just necessary in ensuring that human beings, animals and plants persists to thrive and without sufficient food, the ecosystem shall surely become extinct (Griggs et al 306). Globally, the rate of food insecurity shows persistent amplification due to numerous distinct environmental factors. It essence, environmental factors are the factors that emanate from the ecosystem’s natural setting. With the ever increasing population and deteriorating climatic conditions, environmental issues such as drought have sprung. Agricultural firms persist to lose fertility and the quantity of irrigation waters plunging. In the long-run, the global commercial farmers end up producing lesser amounts of agricultural products that cannot match international food demands which keeps increasing day by day resulting in food insecurity (Blocker et al. 1195-1202).
Climatic change as one of the environmental component is projected to negatively affect food supply because of its consequential impacts such as loss of farmland, fluctuating food production costs and food prices, and increasing food-borne illnesses amongst other issues (Godoy, Cervantes and Dewbre n.d). With the boost in technology and human population, environmental factors such as land degradation, deforestation, and soil pollution amongst others have indeed played a significant role in slashing food security. Additionally, pests are becoming more resistant to most of the pesticides resulting into most of the intimidating plants related pestilences. Entomologists have devised numerous powerful insecticides that they perceive necessary in managing pests in agricultural farms however their attempts have been thwarted by international environmental agencies who proclaim that the insecticides are just but injurious agents to the environment (Harwood, Richard and Kassam n.d). With the increasing poor waste management and pollution, more farm threatening fungal and pest-related diseases are emanating threatening food production processes. The poor waste disposals also act as breeding habitats for pests which generally threats the farm development life cycle. According to statistics, the world loses 37% of its crops to pests due to poor distribution and storage strategies.
According to Agricultural Food Organizations, to sustain the global food security standards by 2050, the world will need to double up its current food production standards (UN Panel, High Level n.d). There are numerous social identities that determine the position of earth dwellers to realign their strategies towards sustainability and elevate or diminish poverty and food insecurity. According to the UN- high panel on food security, human beings must ensure cohesiveness and integral notion towards addressing sustainability issues such as food insecurity. Such togetherness grants a sense of attachment to local surrounding boosting people’s capabilities to address the sustainability issues with much effectiveness (Berghs 41). All individuals, organizations, and households are expected to adjust towards sustainability by finding ways to manage the environment effectively and reduce cases of food misuse however such an ideology is still a rarity in business setups as they major in maximizing profits by minimizing costs.
In managing the issue around food insecurity, organizations and governments require adopting techniques that are sustainable to all the stakeholders rather than the shareholders in particular. The ability of a nation or organization to fight against food insecurity is pegged on governance, corporate culture, human rights, regulations, equity and ethics and health and safety issues amongst other factors. Most organizational governance and corporate cultures for instance, are built on the notion of minimizing costs as a factor of increasing profits (Carroll, Archie and Buchholtz 71). Consequentially, they end up minimizing compensable amounts to their workforce and refrain from corporate social responsibility. If only such organization would pay optimum amounts to their human resource, they would be in a position to relatively afford healthy food requirements. According to global security food index (GSFI) multidimensional tool, country level of food security can be assessed on three major principalities consisting of affordability, availability, accessibility and health and safety measures (Berghs and Maria 27-44). World organization agencies such as FAO, WFP, World Bank and world trade organizations work relentlessly on these principalities to ensure that all people on the planet have access to healthy food and clean water.
The propensity of people to consume is directly correlated with their income in general. People’s demand towards a given set of commodities is shaped by their propensity to buy which is determined by the wealth or monetary factor they have at a particular period of time and the availability of that commodity in the market (Blocker et al. 1195-1202). Sustainability towards eliminating poverty requires that people be in a position to purchase commodities at the going prices and on the same note, governments and business institutions be in a position to avail the necessary food products to the market. The inadequacy of the food products will surely result into undernourishment (Cobbinah et al 37). Governments of nations requires to set market regulatory policies aimed at making sure prices of food items in the market are relatively affordable by majority if not all and that such commodities are fit health-wise for consumption. Additionally, combating this sustainability concern shall require the government to enhance accessibility, availability, and affordability.
A country will enhance accessibility by investing in enhancing infrastructural layout and standards to enhance transportation and distribution of such commodities by businesses. Availability shall be achieved if the country invests significant amount of their national incomes in agricultural practices and import agricultural products as and when necessary (Blocker et al. n.d). Finally, Affordability can be achieved when the set commodity prices are accepted by many. To achieve this, market regulation policies becomes necessary and boosting national per capita is then obligatory. It should be noted that sustainability focuses much into the future hence nations require to be in a position to plan strategically towards boosting food standards in the country within a specified period of time through effective management and control of economic factors (Griggs et al. 306). Governments can as well boost food sustainability through encouraging home and community gardening as well as urban farming. The government should consider offering incentives to local farmers and food processing firms so as to encourage locally production which are deemed to be healthier and safe as compared to imported products (Cobbinah et al. 18-32)
The two major ethical concerns that are related to poverty issues consist of tax payment and CSR activities. Should government increase progressive tax as a way of increasing equality and bridging the gap between the poor and the rich? Should business organizations increase their corporate social responsibility so as to cater for the impoverished society as a way of alleviating poverty?
Governments tend to outline that it is the social responsibility of every citizen to pay taxes so as to meet fiscal needs of the country. Empirically, a nation comprises of two major classes of the people consisting of those who deem themselves as affluent and superior and the other class which deem themselves as deprived and indigent. The gap between these two classes according to UN-high Panel (30) keeps widening despite the attempt of various governments to reduce and possibly bridge up the gap. According to Harwood and Kassam (n.d) progressive tax is of great necessity in ensuring that the rich are taxed more and the poor taxed less. The government shall then use significant amount of national income, tax being the major contributory factor, to meet the social and economic needs of the indigent. Consequentially, the life standards of the deprived shall augment as that of the rich remain stagnated or increase at a decelerating rate.
Governments deem that every citizen must not only pay tax but comply with the tax requirements as stated by the states regulation policies. As some of the proponents propose that paying taxes should be obligatory rather than mandatory, others maintain that paying taxes should be an ethical motivational act backed up with effective and positive consequences (Berghs and Maria 38). Ethical system theorist, Emmanuel Kant, professes that for an action to be ethical, it must conform to the responsibility to do the right thing. In this regard, the citizens must understand that the consequence of paying taxes is raising the national standards and building on equality and egalitarian resource distribution. With this theory, paying taxes is more than just necessary. The utilitarianism theorists however maintain that something ethical is defined from what maximizes the utility of the person and increases their happiness (Berghs, 42). The utilitarianism theorists would therefore, defy taxpaying as it minimizes utility but how it affects happiness remains debatable.
According to the shareholder theory, an organization has the moral and ethical obligation towards meeting the needs of the owners other factors remaining constant with the shareholder theory, organizations should aim towards maximizing profits and any other thing that objects such a principality should be avoided (Gill, Michael and Schlund-Vials 21). With respect to the shareholder theory, organizations need to condense or avoid corporate social responsibility such as community involvement and paying of taxes. The utilitarianism theory also supports the shareholder theory it which it declares that whatever a person deems morally right and increases the net utility of the person is undisputedly ethical. The stakeholder theorists maintain that keeping responsibility to shareholder alone is a misleading concept and therefore broadens responsibility to all people involved directly or indirectly in the organizational processes including shareholders, employees, suppliers, government, and the community (Carroll, Archie and Buchholtz n.d). With the stakeholder model, businesses are expected to pay taxes promptly and involve actively is countering social sustainability issues such as poverty amongst others.
It is undeniable that poverty and food insecurity provides a wide range of opportunities and threats to business setups and organizations. In essence, food insecurity means insufficient food distribution to the specific areas and hence there is an opportunity for businesses to penetrate those markets. Doing business in such places shall probably be much promising because of the wide market, consumers with outrageous demand, and consumers with low bargaining power (Tsai et al. n.d). Businesses in areas marked with food insecurity experience less competition and gains much loyalty and trust from the customers.
In these markets, Adam Smith’s invisible hand applies a great deal since there are no fervent regulators but the market are regulated with moral judgments and self-interests (Gill et al, n.d). Despite the opportunities, the poverty stricken markets are economically marked with low household incomes which stand as a threat to the businesses. They might be compelled to sell products below the marked prices. People in areas marked with scarcity have the problem of outrageous predisposition to consume but low propensity to spend (Tsai et al. n.d). As such, local and international organization would avail to them such basic needs as an aid at no marked costs or price oppressing the aids to trade. Such decisions are never sustainable as it lacks future projections hence to some extent might be morally unfit.
There are various ethical approaches that when applied effectively shall surely curtail or assist in eradication of poverty. Organization, governments, and businesses should make consultations with individuals, families and population groups involved in poverty situations and assist them plan and execute measures and projects aimed at eradicating poverty rather than giving them food which is just but a temporary undertaking( Berghs and Maria 27-44). Additionally, the government, international corporations, and civil societies amongst other social organizations should deem it their responsibility to develop social policies and sustainable actions aimed at reducing or putting an end to the extreme poverty levels. Policies appertaining to participation, self-reliance, empowerment and sustainability are best achieved if such parties actively involve in setting such social policies.
Governments and international organizations should also magnify on creating awareness of human rights and ethics so as to enhance equal distribution of resources and lessening regional disparity as a way of ensuring that the scarce resources gets to the reach of every citizen or individual not only the affluent (Cobbinah et al.18-32). Finally, governments should set strict policies relating to forestation, environment, and land sustainability as a factor of increasing land fertility and consequentially enhancing production. The government and international organizations should also look into subsidizing and offering incentives to agricultural sectors as well as individual farmers (Godoy, Cervantes and Dewbre 42). With these strategies, there is strong conviction that people shall never undergo through the pains of poverty.
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Carroll, Archie, and Ann Buchholtz. Business and society: Ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Nelson Education, 2014.
Cobbinah, Patrick Brandful, Michael Odei Erdiaw-Kwasie, and Paul Amoateng. «Rethinking sustainable development within the framework of poverty and urbanisation in developing countries.» Environmental Development 13 (2015): 18-32.
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