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  • Essay question: David Cecil has been charged with hacking into the systems of Platform Networks. Should, could and how may Platform Networks have undertaken measures to reduce the likelihood they were attacked by David Cecil? Maximum length: 3,000 wo

Essay question: David Cecil has been charged with hacking into the systems of Platform Networks. Should, could and how may Platform Networks have undertaken measures to reduce the likelihood they were attacked by David Cecil? Maximum length: 3,000 wo Example

  • Category:
    Law
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    7
  • Words:
    4605

Internet Hacking

Abstract

Hacking is a major problem that majority of companies, institutions, organizations and other private sectors face on a daily bases. A lot of inconveniences are caused to data and software that is attacked. A company complained to have detected hackers attack, which lend to a six month investigation. This led to the arrest of David Cecil an unemployed truck driver aged 25 years. He was found to be highly involved in hacking to various computers that were investigated. This is based on the Australian cyber laws which highly refrain and condemn people who committing cyber crimes. This paper highlights how David’s case helps in stressing main contributors or the loopholes of hacking. It also encourages people to report any hacking attack that they sense on their computers. Finally, it shows the way forward to eliminate or control hacking attacks, which can be made possible through corporation between the clients or customers who notice suspicious activities and the authorities.

Introduction

Computers and internet have managed to connect billions of people and networks globally. This is because of the interaction of software and applications. Many platforms have been implemented with different or similar applications. Different applications platform, which means computer systems underlying where software and programs application can run have been invented. These platforms include IBM’s S/390, Mac OSX and Windows 2000 depending on the type of computers.1 Platforms consist of programs that coordinate systems in a computer and operating systems set for the processor. In simple terms, a platform is a base of technology where other processes and technology are assembled.

Hacking on the other side, could be either good or bad and it means exploring government, company, institutional or personal data and disrupting software without authorization or the consent of the owners.2 This means that hacking platform networks is getting data and information without the consent of owner or his authority and impairing it. Other hackers just distort programs and application software for no particular use. They also steal data and information form computers. Some of the hackers’ vandalize website, pirate software, and perform other illegal activities in software and data from the computers.3 Hacking leads to cyber crime, which means illegal activities done over the computer through internet or networks and computer systems.4

Case issue

David Cecil an unemployed track driver, aged twenty five is facing charges for hacking into a service provider for the national broadband network. David used a nickname “evil”, whenever he went online.5 He is a self trained young hacker, who spends over twenty hours a day on his computer. In Australia the crime that David is charged with is the biggest hacking attack. The Australian cyber crime law, restrict accessing or impairing data with the consent of committing offense. The law also restricts data modification and impairing with the intentions of causing inconveniences and harms.6 Additionally, the law has restricted access to data that has restriction on its access and control. David has committed a majority of these cyber crimes.

David falls in the hands of the law for breaking cyber crime laws of the Australian law. He is charged with one count of changing data without authorization and forty nine other counts of accessing restricted data from his computer. David had modified data without authorization casing impairment of software and distortion of data and information. His alleged incursion into the platform networks finds him in the hand of the law for breaking the Australian cyber crime laws. His arrest comes after a long period of six month investigation on computer crime by the federal Australian police. The police made their investigation at a Sydney University and several businesses in Melbourne. They arrested David at his home in Cowra with a sure conviction from Grant Edwards an AFP commander who indentified various hacked computers.7 He is also responsible for major companies hack attempt and the intrusion into computer systems of Sydney University.

David pleaded for a release on a bail but was denied the bail. David was remanded to be put in custody for fear of destroying evidence if a bail is granted for him. Police claim that the hacking done by David who is now arrested could have caused damages to the infrastructure in a considerable way. According to the Orange local court, David is claimed to have had control over the whole platform for a period of six weeks.8 The offenses that he committed offenses carry ten years jail term and cannot be released on a bail since he can alter evidence. He is well conversant with computer application and software and can alter all the evidence by clearing it, if he gets released on a bail.

The Australian laws on cyber crime hold that intention to seriously offend causing harm and inconveniences to the computer is a serious offence.9 This means that from the point of view of causing offence the hacker can be prosecuted only if he commits the crime on the Australian territory. This is because it is more difficult to prosecute cyber criminals committed outside Australian territory. The greatest problem at hand is the fact that cyber crimes are on the increase as technology advances and new inventions evolve. According to Brendan O’Connor a justice minister, computer hacking should not be tolerated because of the serious risk it causes to companies and the security threatening it causes to economic prosperity.10

Life challenges of individual push them to do various things like hacking done by David. As must as evil hacking is being faced off, intelligent minds should not be left idle. Solving problems that such people face in their day to day encounter would help eliminate cyber crime to some greater extent.11 In our case, David is a truck driver who is unemployed. He spends the best part of his day on the computer. His intelligent mind gives him a view of exploration into the networks. David spends a maximum of two hours every day on the computer. This would only mean that his mind would be exploitative to the extent of hacking information. Employment to such a person would occupy his time and reduce the number of hours that he would spend on the computer.

Platform network hacking is a very common problem that majority of institutions, companies, government and individuals are facing today. This means that they ought to find reasons why, they are prone to such attacks. They also have to find solutions to prevent future attacks, by getting security that they need for the sake of their platform networks. Dealing with cyber crime, would help in reducing the great risk that people face.12 Network management a tool of operating and maintenance of network system, would play a major role.13 This means that networks would be monitored properly and any form of defect would be detected at an early stage. Keeping track of what data gets exposed, and what remain undisclosed would encourage early detection. Putting into light any form of hacking would help in devising measures that would eliminate or minimize these attacks.

Platform network hacking can be caused by various issues. Knowing that there is a problem and the platform networks are being attacked should be the first in identifying the cause of the attack. The problem comes in when detection is made and not action is taken. Many platform networks have not done anything to prevent or reduce the likelihood of being attacked by hackers. Most of the companies, organization, institution and private ventures hide any form of hacking that they notice. This creates loopholes that hackers can use to attack easily. It creates the possibility for hacking to be done easily and intensively. Hackers like David are given opportunities to explore more and cause serious attacks that would have been prevented. Very few people report attacks and give way for investigation. This means that more damage is caused by silence or ignorance. It makes it difficult to prevent any further damages from hackers attack. Understanding that hacking can be prevented or minimized would be the first step of solving the challenge that it brings along.

Additionally, security of the network, which takes into account the safety of resources and assets, would be assured.14 Right and privileges of customers are assured, whenever the issue of security is catered for. This is because, even if hacking takes place, customers will be in a position to understand that it was behold measures that were put. That is to say that the issue was out of control and there was nothing much that would be done to prevent the attack. Cyber crime can be reduced if hacked information is reported without further delay. This is because most of the platforms networks wait for so long before reporting any form of hacking.

Hackers take advantages of every opportunity that they get to get what they need. They are able to attack platform networks the moment they detect a weakness. This means that hacking becomes an element of loopholes and vulnerable data. Therefore, data handling should be taken with a lot of caution with the changes in technology and the new adventures. It should be noted that new technology and web application have contributed highly to hacking through open door for more exploitation. People have been exposed to changes and advances in technology from time to time. This has opened they mind set and the capacity to explore different ideas.

On the other side, exploitation in different ideas that have evolved with the advances in technology has led to more insecurity through compromised evolution of web applications. People explore more that any other time ever to keep up with the changes. Broken authentication is vulnerability where various defects in the application login mechanism are encountered attackers guess passwords that are weak or by pass the login.15 A hacker who finds it very easy to get access to website and other information whenever there is weak password. The advances in technology have made people to explore and understand various areas of weaknesses.

Information leakage make an application to be vulnerable to divulges sensitive information that is advantage to the attacker for his purpose of assault against the application software. Broken access control also makes data accessible due to failed protection. Hackers are able to access sensitive data of other users without their knowledge. The cross-site scripting is a loophole that give hacker access to applications where they perform unauthorized actions on behalf or against of the users. 16 Additionally, SQL injection allows attackers to submit crafted input to interfere with the application’s interactions with back end database. Vulnerability is a major loophole to data hacking. In most cases, hackers attack from areas where they spot weaknesses.

The loopholes above are some of the tactics that hackers use since they are able to find weakness. David may have taken advantage of the vulnerability of the issues to hack the platform broadband network. David being an intelligent young man, he spends much of his time on the computer. He is bound to discover various sites and software. This means he may even find weaknesses in various platform networks. This may cause him to want to explore more and thus leading him to attack platforms. Idleness trigger curiosity in an intelligent mind set such as that of David.

On the other side, the platform networks that David hacked should understand that something can be done to prevent future hacking. Anyone who experience any form of uncertainty should not hide. This is because Cyber crime can be prevented through the element of exposing hacking at the moment that it is detected. Additionally, everybody should understand that hacking is a common cyber crime that is punishable by the law.17 This is because it does not only affect big institutions, companies and government organization, but also affect private sectors and individual consumers who have the least know how of how to handle it.18 Education can also largely help in fighting against hacking. Everybody can help in protecting valuable assets and data through getting education. Ignorance is dangerous and people should be willing to learn to understand hacking, its effects and how it can be controlled. People should take measures in reporting any form of suspicious data interruption help in detection. Additionally early detection and reporting should be understood clearly to be the best early step of controlling the problem. It is also the best stage of preventing further damage.

Hacking being a major problem should be clearly understood to be a broad topic. Hacking can be of two different categories, which are completely different from each other. In judging and convicting David, the court should put into consideration his intention alongside with the category of hacking that he committed. This is because he could be involved in good hacking where he gets involved wholly just after exploration. A form of hacking that gives birth to wonders of technological advancements it innovation. Additionally, the court should differentiate good hacking from the evil one.

In the evil hacking, the cracker who attacks has a bad motive with the aim to steal.19 The good hacking can be positively used as an act that would be diverted to make advances that can help companies and organizations to make advances technologically. It should be noted that hackers are people with in-depth innovative spirit. They have mind sets that are exploitive in the technological knowledge. These forms of mind sets can be directed in the rightful directions and can be used to make advances in the technological world. The evil hacker has a bad motive, and should be punishable by the law. These are people who hack software and data for no particular good reason. They should be discouraged because their target is to steal information and data for their self gain.

The evil hackers impair and distort software application without the consent of the owner. They destroy the application programs and therefore, they should be reported immediately after being detected to avoid further damages. These are dangerous hackers who can impair a whole system if that is what it will take them to steal the data or information that they need. All the necessary measures should be taken to discourage the evil hackers and that is why they should be reported. Various measures that put guarantee platform networks security should be devised and put in place. This would help minimize evil hacking. Evil hacking can be completely eradicated if the good hackers work hand with the platform software managers to put a stop to these crackers.

Hacking is a crime that distorts the trust of people, companies, organizations and institution. Most of the clients feel like it is the responsibility of their organizations to allow information or data to be hacked. After the discovery of David hacking the platform network are put in a compromising situation. David Hooton the managing director assures all the customers that everything is being done to protect them. 20This assures all the customers that despite the hacking problem they are well taken care of. Additionally, it should be noted that despite the strong security of the place anyone can be vulnerable to hacking. NBN denied having been compromised in the attack.21 Hooton claimed that the attacks were not directed to the platform or any of its customers. All these are ways of protecting the image of the company.

The privacy act in Australia has an obligation to protect personal information and requires a safeguard of information by the organization against any form of access or misuse by unauthorized persons within Australian territory.22 Companies have a choice to inform public over any form of cyber insecurities. This means that they can decide on whether or not to inform the public of the cyber crimes depending on the recipient anticipated reaction.23 Australian privacy law protects its members from disclosing delicate and sensitive data and information. This law allows the choice to disclose data and information in the hands of the clients. Therefore, customers cannot complain that they did not get information or data that is not disclosed. Some customers are anticipated to either be overwhelmed with fear and uncertainty. The only best thing such situation is to ensure that they are not informed. Additionally, there are those who are anticipated to act positively and may even provide ideas of solving the situation at hand. In such cases the best thing is to inform them of the insecurity that the organization is facing.

The federal police of Australia were able to uncover a worrying attack.24 A period of six-months left a platform network of telecommunications wholesaler hacked. This was a company where wholesalers had access to the network of national broadband. Many speculations made the company to take drastic measures of investigating the attacks. Most of the businesses are hacked on regular bases but they hide information for an extensive period. It was the biggest step taken by telecommunication wholesale when they came forward to report of the hacking that they had encountered.25 They did not wait for long before coming forward with their claims that helped the Federal Australian police in their investigation. Taking the step to investigate the platform network was the best thing that they did. This is because they did not wait for extensive damage to be done. Their involvement of Federal Australian Police was another awesome idea. This is because the police were in a position to investigate deeper into the matters and other similar cases. Additionally, after investigation and finding the suspect the police are able to carry orders to arrest the criminal.

David found himself in the hands of the law for breaching cyber crime laws. Early detection and reporting of the matter by the Platform networks that were attacked by hackers helped in finding the suspect. Solutions to solve the current problems need to be sort and implemented. Most of the people fail to understand that hiding information about data distortion may lead to serious problems. This means that the only solution to solve network hacking is to bring to the open any suspicious network interruption by unauthorized persons.

Education is another step that can be used to prevent or minimize computer insecurities that hacking brings. This is because knowledge is a solution to a problem or a challenge. Knowing is going half way the battle and can be the best alternative measure in handling the problem.26 Education also help individual to keep up with the changes as they arise. Advancement in technology and new innovation should always meet people prepared and ready to avoid being caught unaware. People should be well educated to avoid unpleasant surprises that new technological advances bring along.27 People like David are able to keep up with the changes because of the knowledge and their innovative nature. Everybody should get ride of the ignorance to avoid unpleasant surprises.

Cyber laws should be considered as an area and field of concern for the sake of informing users on what is expected and what is not expected of them in the usage of computers.28 Users should be informed so that they are aware of crimes that they can report if they detect therm. The cyber law training can also help in eradicating ignorance in many computer users. Additionally, being conversant with the cyber rules help in minimizing crimes. Awareness of the laws help in ensuring people understands what they need to avoid so that they cannot be on the wrong side of the law. People will be able to report crimes whenever they detect them.

Data and discrete information can be protected also by getting advice on how to create security strategies, which are multilayer to protect data and fight against cyber crimes.29 Users should understand that cyber security is an affair that is wholly private.30 This means that users are the only people who can help in controlling hacking attacks by reporting any form of data distortion. Keeping quest about suspicious detection is like encouraging hacking, while on the other side reporting it is discouraging further damagers.

In conclusion, people should not that not all hacking is bad. There is positive hacking which can be used to the benefit of the company and organizations. This means that those exploitive minds can be used by the companies, government or institutions to explore. These are minds that can be used to bring about technological advancements. Additionally, it should be noted that these are intelligent minds that are misplaced for placement failure. If such brains are not utilized properly they become wasteful and end up committing cyber crimes.

In contrast, evil hacking should be prevented at all cost. This is because delicate material, data and information are at risk. Most of the evil hackers aim at distorting information and data. They also impair software and steal delicate data and credit card numbers from clients. Such should be discouraged by being reported to the authority the moment that they are detected. Hackers can be prevented before they cause immense damage. Additionally, early detection can be helpful in highlighting all the potential loopholes. This means that any form of a weakness can be detected early enough and mended.

David Cecil attacked various platform networks out his curiosity and idleness. Measures should be taken by the government to make more research that would help in exploring better methods of dealing with the problem. Putting rough measure to people who find themselves on the wrong side of the law may not solve the problem. It will make even matter worse since hackers may develop more strategies to be more discreet. This would make it more difficult to be caught since they would be well informed to destroy evidence whenever they commit a crime of hacking.

List of References

Articles/Books/Reports

A Clemm 2008.
Network Management Fundamentals. Cisco Press, New York.

Alison Rehn. Herald Sun stories start here- Truck driver David Noel Cecil charged over alleged hacking of NBN provider. Herald & Weekly Times. All times AEST (GMT +10).

AUSCERT 2004. Computer crime & security survey, AUSCERT, Brisbane.

Brent MacLean B.Sc., M.Sc., CCSE, CEH, CHFI, PMP, P. Eng 2009, Canadian Intelligence Solutions (CIS) Inc.- International Security Solutions

Connolly, Chris, ‘Hot Topics: Legal Issues in Plain Language’, 70 Cyber law.

Dafydd, S, & Marcus, P. 2008. The Web Application Hacker’s Handbook: Discovering and Exploiting Security Flaws. Wiley publishing, Inc, New York.

Dafydd, S. 2008. The Web Application Hacker’s Handbook: Discovering and Exploiting Security Flaws (2nd ed.). Wiley publishing, Inc, New York.

Jon E. 2008, Hacking- The art of Exploitation. (2nd ed.). No Starch Press. Stuart, New York.

John, C. Keeney. Cyber ethics, Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section, Department of justice, Washington, D.C.

Kerr, O 2003, Cybercrime’s scope: interpreting ‘access’ and ‘authorization’ in computer misuse statutes, New York University law review78(5), NY.

Krone 2005, Australian Government- Australian Institute of Criminology: High tech crime brief no.6, Canberra, Australia.

McClure, Joel Scambay, George Kurtz. (2009). Hacked exposed: network security secrets and solutions. (6th ed.). The McGraw Hill Companies, New York.

Parliamentary Joint Committee on the Australian Crime Commission (PJC) 2004, Cybercrime. Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.

Rattner, D 2010, Loss Prevention & Risk Management Strategy, Security Management, Lecture Northeastern University, Boston..

Rattner, D 2010, «Risk Assessments.» Security Management. Northeastern University, Boston. 15 Mar.2010. Lecture.

Rattner, D 2010, «Internal & External Threats.» Security Management. Northeastern University, Boston. 8 April. 2010. Lecture

ROD McGUIRK 2011, Man charged with hacking into Australian broadband, Associated Press.

Thomson Reuters. Find law Australia —Australian law and online hacking: Australia Limited 2011, ABN 64 058 914 668.

Other Sources

Alleged NBN hacker David Cecil denied bail by court over fear he cold destroy evidence. Retrieved from, http://www.news.com.au/technology/evil-nbn-hacker-david-cecil-denied-bail-by-court-over-fears-he-could-destroy-evidence/story-e6frfro0-1226102480479.

Australians for Austrians 2011, iTech report; AFP arrest Australian hacker. Retrieved from, http://itechreport.com.au/2011/07/27/afp-arrest-australian-hacker.

CSO 2004, The Resource for Security Executives, Retrieved from, http://www.csoonline.com/read/030104/ground.html.

Greenleaf, G.W. & Waters, N. 1994, Privacy Law & Policy Reporter, monthly. Retrieved from, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/PLPR.

Naavi’s Cyber Law College 2011, The First Cyber Law Education Center in India.

Q & A, Schmidt. 2007. Information Security News: Cyber security a private affair. Retrieved from, http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/qna/0,289202,sid14_gci1246660,00.html.

Retrieved from, http://www.cyberlawcollege.com/intro_2.html.

Security Focus 2004, “Howard Schmidt Returns to Government”. Retrieved from, http://www.securityfocus.com/news/9660.

Simon, S2011, ABC News: Police say cyber attack threatens Australia’s infrastructure). Retrieved from, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-07-27/police-say-cyber-attack-threatens.

Timeline 2003, The US Government and Cyber security. Retrieved from, http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A50606-2002Jun26?language=printer.

The Australian, the heart of the nation 2011, Man accused of hacking into NBN provider is refused bail. Retrieved from, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/hacker-accused-of-threat-to-national-broadband-network/story-e6frg6nf-1226102794463.

West Wick: NBN 2011, «not hacked» in Platform Networks attack, says NBN Co. Retrieved from, http://www.voiceanddata.com.au/news/48292-NBN-not-hacked-in-Platform-Networks-attack-says-NBN-Co

Wise Geek 2011, clear answers for common questions: what is cybercrime? Retrieved from, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cybercrime.htm.

1 Rattner, D 2010, «Risk Assessments.» Security Management. Northeastern University, Boston. 15 Mar.2010. Lecture.

2 Krone 2005, Australian Government- Australian Institute of Criminology: High tech crime brief no.6, Canberra, Australia.

3 Rattner, Daniel. «Internal & External Threats.» Security Management. Northeastern University, Boston. 8 April. 2010. Lecture.

4
Wise Geek 2011, clear answers for common questions: what is cybercrime? Retrieved from, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cybercrime.htm.

http://www.news.com.au/technology/evil-nbn-hacker-david-cecil-denied-bail-by-court-over-fears-he-could-destroy-evidence/story-e6frfro0-1226102480479 Retrieved from, Alleged NBN hacker David Cecil denied bail by court over fear he cold destroy evidence.
5

6 Parliamentary Joint Committee on the Australian Crime Commission (PJC) 2004, Cybercrime. Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.

7 ROD McGUIRK 2011, Man charged with hacking into Australian broadband, Associated Press.

8 The Australian, the heart of the nation 2011, Man accused of hacking into NBN provider is refused bail. Retrieved from, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/hacker-accused-of-threat-to-national-broadband-network/story-e6frg6nf-1226102794463.

9 AUSCERT 2004. Computer crime & security survey, AUSCERT, Brisbane.

10 Alison Rehn. Herald Sun stories start here- Truck driver David Noel Cecil charged over alleged hacking of NBN provider. Herald & Weekly Times. All times AEST (GMT +10).

11 Timeline 2003, The US Government and Cyber security. Retrieved from, http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A50606-2002Jun26?language=printer.

12 Security Focus 2004, “Howard Schmidt Returns to Government”. Retrieved from, http://www.securityfocus.com/news/9660.

13 A Clemm 2008. Network Management Fundamentals. Cisco Press, New York.

14 Rattner, Daniel 2010, «Loss Prevention & Risk Management Strategy.» Security Management. Northeastern University, Boston. 5 Mar. 2010. Lecture.

15 Dafydd, S, & Marcus, P. 2008. The Web Application Hacker’s Handbook: Discovering and Exploiting Security Flaws. Wiley publishing, Inc, New York.

16 Dafydd, S, & Marcus, P. 2008. The Web Application Hacker’s Handbook: Discovering and Exploiting Security Flaws. (2nd.). Wiley publishing, Inc, New York.

17 Connolly, Chris, 2009 ‘Hot Topics: Legal Issues in Plain Language’, 70 Cyber law.

18
McClure, Joel Scambay, George Kurtz. (2009). Hacked exposed: network security secrets and solutions. (6th ed.). The McGraw Hill Companies, New York.

19
Jon E. 2008, Hacking- The art of Exploitation. (2nd ed.). No Starch Press. Stuart, New York. .

20
Australians for Austrians 2011, iTech report; AFP arrest Australian hacker. Retrieved from, http://itechreport.com.au/2011/07/27/afp-arrest-australian-hacker.

21 West Wick: NBN 2011, «not hacked» in Platform Networks attack, says NBN Co. Retrieved from, http://www.voiceanddata.com.au/news/48292-NBN-not-hacked-in-Platform-Networks-attack-says-NBN-Co

22 Kerr, O 2003, Cybercrime’s scope: interpreting ‘access’ and ‘authorization’ in computer misuse statutes, New York University law review78(5), NY.

23 Greenleaf, G.W. & Waters, N. 1994, Privacy Law & Policy Reporter, monthly. Retrieved from, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/PLPR.

24
Simon, S2011, ABC News: Police say cyber attack threatens Australia’s infrastructure). Retrieved from, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-07-27/police-say-cyber-attack-threatens.

25 Thomson Reuters. Find law Australia —Australian law and online hacking: Australia Limited 2011, ABN 64 058 914 668.

26 Brent MacLean B.Sc., M.Sc., CCSE, CEH, CHFI, PMP, P. Eng 2009, Canadian Intelligence Solutions (CIS) Inc.- International Security Solutions.

27 John, C. Keeney. Cyber ethics, Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section, Department of justice, Washington, D.C.

28
Naavi’s Cyber Law College 2011, The First Cyber Law Education Center in India. Retrieved from, http://www.cyberlawcollege.com/intro_2.html.

29 CSO 2004, The Resource for Security Executives, Retrieved from, http://www.csoonline.com/read/030104/ground.html.

30 Q & A, Schmidt. 2007. Information Security News: Cyber security a private affair. Retrieved from, http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/qna/0,289202,sid14_gci1246660,00.html.

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