Essay on Management Theory Example

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Management 11

MANAGEMENT THEORY ON ETHICS

Management Theory on Ethics

Introduction

Ethics, or in most cases moral philosophy, refers to the recommendation, defense, and systemization of the concepts that ascertain the right or wrong conduct in any situation. Ethics is based on the habits and customs that promote the determination of being right or wrong, as dependent on the actions thereof. In terms of the management concerns in any organization, ethics affects the tendencies of people within the setting behaving and conducting themselves in morally appropriate manners. Management is concerned with morals and ethics as they both determine the courses of action and resultant achievements (Mayon-White 2014, p. 196). Moral values affect the fundamental beliefs regarding the good or bad, right or wrong. Ethics on the other hand become the standards of conduct based on the moral values. Despite the beliefs that while in Rome, do as Romans, the measures should incorporate the right ethical background even if it means going against the norm at the respective organization. Instead, ethical imperialism should be of

Discussion

Cultural Relativism versus Ethical Imperialism

The two main conflicting concerns on the issue of moral as well as ethical considerations in terms of management decisions, actions and procedures in the organizational setup are cultural relativism and ethical imperialism. Cultural relativism is the denoted principle that the beliefs and activities of an individual should be understood or tolerated due to the personal culture and determinants that prohibit the same (Mayon-White 2014, p. 196). In this dimension, any individual can dictate the tolerance terms of their characteristics in synthesis of their behaviors and conducts within an organizational framework. Cultural relativism derives the differences from influences determined by the impact of critique based on the origin of the dimension. The critical function is then responsible for broader understanding of tolerance as is expected with certain cultures, beliefs and systems all functioning in a single entity. It is more of a position or doctrine as compared to methodology.

Ethical imperialism refers to the belief that certain behavioral depictions or actions are either right or wrong, depending on the setting and irrespective of the cultures that surround them. Wright (2013, p. 88) argues that in the aspect of ethical imperialism, there is an added incentive on the application of the truths irrespective of the location, culture, organization, and individuals involved in the process. Ethical imperialism uses carious values that are meant to transcend in the different cultures in order to determine what is wrong or right. The application criteria might be varied from one organization, location, setting, people or culture to another, but the fundamental distinctions are maintained all together. With the distinction of morals versus ethics in the offing, it is necessary for the right actions, decisions or judgments to be made with the right purpose of the organization’s view.

Organizational Culture

The governing mechanism of people’s behaviors in an organization through shared values, assumptions, beliefs, systematic deliveries and thought process refers to the organizational culture. The shared elements in the setting all affect the influence of all involved persons’ mannerism in their actions, dressing, communication, relations, performance of their jobs and responsibilities with the overall analytical mindsets (Pane Haden, Humphreys, Cooke and Penland 2012, p. 14). Organizational culture transcends into the different aspects including feelings and emotional attachments to the roles and responsibilities involved in the organization’s identity as well as interaction with the projected image towards the involved stakeholders across the board. The co-existing subcultures in the organization are determinants of the culture with the unique attributes, which help facilitate the understanding between all members and individuals. From the historical concept, the organizational culture helps in forming the appropriate and expected returns forthwith from identity and responses.

Understanding of the cultural organization is important in all facets of the setup, especially where all proceeds have to depend on the translated effects from the common cause of accepted values, beliefs, performance indicator generative as well as the outcomes that become associated with the organization. In the latter classification, the influence can either be direct or indirect. All together for an association’s way of life to be spoken to, the general qualities, vision, convictions, suspicions and propensities are considered. Pane Haden, Humphreys, Cooke and Penland (2012, p. 14) note that the behaviors of the above aspects are in this way completed in a normal premise on new individuals and kept up as a personality of the association. The structure, controls and culture of an association contrast in little assembling organization, a chain store, a high-innovation organization and that of a major four bookkeeping firm. Determination of the above is required in determining the resultant behaviors and opinions.

By sticking to organizational culture, there is an element of protocol as well as respect to traditions. It ensures all decisions and operations follow the organization’s needs. The points, targets and objectives of an association decide the way in which errands are apportioned, composed and directed. The structure decides the standard in which operational methodology is completed and the normal rests. Structures contrast as far as the objectivity, usefulness and results in the specific endeavor (Schwartz 2007, p. 13). For instance, a practical structure is worried with the worth chain advantage in favor of the client while market structure concentrates on the claim to fame of every ability in the association. Item structure is adjusted to the outcome got from the operations while topographical structure is worried with the area of the developments and exercises of the association.

In terms of the culture relativism and organizational culture, the dilemma is on following the protocols as opposed to generating ethical considerations. Following as the Romans do is only permissible if the ethical needs are met. Key control frameworks are bound with the general engraving of the power. Individual control is capable to collaborations while yield is basically on the assessments of expected returns. Tobias and Werthheim (2011, p. 17) argue that conduct control and institutionalization are likewise parts of the investigation of information and execution of administration in an association. Authoritative society decides the conduct, vision and execution of the endeavor benchmarks and is downright on the execution of exercises. . The structure, controls and culture of an association vary in little assembling organization, a chain store, a high-innovation organization and that of a major four bookkeeping firm.

Considerations for Cooperation and Organizational Culture

Working of a hierarchical setup is reliant on participation between every one of the gatherings included and partners. The determinants of the association’s objectives and targets need to have a smooth correspondence rule between them with a specific end goal to perform on the ideal level. Correspondence along these lines decides the fate of the connections between the administrative and work levels of the authoritative structure. Consequently, once the powerful instrument is accomplished, the achievement ways are drawn up and empowered through the channels sought after. Proficiency inside of the correspondence rules on collaboration requires assignment of obligations, parts, and undertakings. Differential ventures and accomplished objectives require the specialization of the able workforce under premise of greatest trusts between the individuals with a specific end goal to accomplish the aggregate endeavors. Insignificant divisions are normal if the result ensured has been spoken and allotted with equivalent measure. Tobias and Werthheim (2011, p. 17) state that when specialization is accomplished and designation met, productivity is then looked for through general reports on advancement.

Elements that minimize the proficiency as controlled by participation start from duplication of parts inside of the hierarchical structure. Assigned errands that require specialization and elucidation must be recognized with a specific end goal to minimize any contention or aggregate loss of course according to the normal results and targets. For all the above to be accomplished, viable correspondence is extreme determinant. It guarantees that the fitting of all individuals inside of the structures and arrangement as per targets and objectives of the association are met without lifting a finger (Max and Tenbrunsel 2011). Between the colleagues, successful and great correspondence needs to exist for favored participation and results of acting as a unit. It empowers simpler strife determination, readiness as far as any crisis or variations and supported procedure of accomplishing the objectives. Between the administrative and work levels, correspondence serves to diminish any pressure between the two classifications while making an empowering situation for accomplishment to be accomplished easily.

Ethics and Decision-Making

Ethics should be the basis of making all decisions in an organization despite the obvious protocol in set of rules and culture within it. One should not conform to the given mandates or follow the saying. “When in Rome, do as the Romans.” Arranging establishments is the part portion and decentralization of the procedure (Kaptein 2013, p. 15). The asset administrator can’t accomplish the realization of the activity on ward systems. One of the watched classifications of changes undermined in the greater part of the association today is specialization assignment. The human asset chief is important with the decision of the authorities used to touch base at the correct timing required and assume control approach (Wright, 2013). The obligations must be secured as the course of events is in charge of the association’s consistency or loss of essential time and assets. Taking a gander at the strengths today, outer bodies furnished with the level of readiness in executing the progressions have idealized in cost cutting and obligation portion. Notwithstanding, it includes some major disadvantages to the separate association as it is caught up by experience and polished skill. In the meantime, consistent capacities ought not to be halted.

Obstructions in change administration in an association are apparently the most anguishing part of the procedure. Obstructions can exist in different structures. For instance, the ward of progress is under the human asset administration. In such manner, elective or influenced divisions will have apathy to the recognized office as they will thusly confront the outcomes. It is just regular that a boundary of resistance or negative methodology is accomplished during the time spent planned change. Consolidating every single distinctive level of the hierarchical capacities into the change procedure is the hardest of all of them (Mayon-White, 2014). Contrasts between the representatives or working power and administration are seen subsequent to the most influenced are the previous. Confronting disagreement accomplishes the rigors of the change administration keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish congruity and complete the procedure with negligible resistance or protest.

Conquering the reservations among the authoritative fabric is a genuine test of the change administration process. In today’s corporate world, the procedure has been examined as negative prospect that affect even the authoritative efficiency, resultant gainfulness and created securities and additionally connections. By, Burnes and Oswick (2012) contend that the human asset administration must be tasked with owning of the procedure and conveying the advantages versus expenses of keeping up the norm. It ought to be anticipated as a need or prerequisite for the general accomplishment of the organization instead of a legitimate measures or a standard procedure. Once the distinctive sides are as one, the procedure is then embraced as an obligation of the entire association. It is basic to solicit on the level from duty at this point from the workforce relying upon the learning behind the change systems as they are powerless.

In the difficulties thought about towards change administration, the test of correspondence is unfaltering issue when reconciliation and route are required. In a perfect world it influences the last as it means the general procedure of ensuring the association accomplishes the right changes. Changes can be makeshift or perpetual. In this manner autonomous thinking ought to be utilized to infer the correspondence stations material in a specific association. A portion of the organizations in the business environment today are famous for their various leveled way to deal with issues inside of the structures. It is reminiscent that such associations have a stringent society of recompense, particularly when the issue of progress is required. Compose (2013), is of the thought that legitimate evaluation is in this manner a need to the requirements of progress administration at all levels so as to minimize odds of resistance or negative inputs. A human asset administrator ought to be one why should unequivocal translate the social portrayal and the conceivable approaches to change it

Conclusion

Organizational ethics depict the expected behavioral occurrences and delivery of various opinions, beliefs, roles, responsibilities and the overall protocols within the setup. It is stated that “When in Rome, do as the Romans.” However, this should not be the gospel truth in all matters that require ethical considerations. Arranging establishments is the part portion and decentralization of the procedure. The asset administrator can’t accomplish the realization of the activity on ward systems. One of the watched classifications of changes undermined in the greater part of the association today is specialization assignment. Ethics should be guided by the need to observe morals and the decision to base on right and wrong as well as the achievement of good or bad results. Managers should be instrumental in spearheading the change towards ethics as the basis of guidance at all levels without failure. Managers should be able to grow the culture of independence in decision- making process with the relevant guidance from morals and ethics.

Reference

By, R., Burnes, B., & Oswick, C, 2012, Change Management: The Road Ahead. Journal of Change Management, 11(1), 1-6.

Kaptein, M. (2013). Workplace morality: behavioral ethics in organizations. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1562669_0.

Max H. Bazerman and Ann E. Tenbrunsel, 2011, Blind Spots: Why We Fail to Do What’s Right and What to Do about It Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press.

Mayon-White, W, 2014, Focus on Business Change and Ethics: The Ethics of Change Management: Manipulation or Participation? Business Ethics: A European Review, 3(4), 196-200.

Murray, D. (2007). Ethics in organizations. London, Kogan Page in association with Coopers & Lybrand.

Pane Haden, S S, Humphreys, J H, Cooke, J, & Penland, P 2012, ‘Applying Taylor’s Principles to
Teams: Renewing a Century-Old Theory’, Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, vol. 90(4), pp. 11-20.

Schwartz, M 2007, ‘The “business ethics” of management theory’, Journal of Management History, vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 43-54.

Tobias J. Moskowitz and L. Jon Werthheim, 2011, Scorecasting: The Hidden Influences Behind How Sports Are Played and Games Are Won (New York, N.Y.: Crown Publishing Group.

Wren, DA 2011, ‘The Centennial of Frederick W. Taylor’s The Principles of Scientific Management: A Retrospective Commentary’, Journal of Business and Management, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 11-22.

Wright, A, 2013. Using scenarios to challenge and change management thinking. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 16(1), 87-103.