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Developing the service product& Managing the physical evidence of service.(service marketing) Essay Example

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Service Marketing


Core and Supplementary Element of a Product

Service products usually comprises of all element of service performance which are tangible or intangible and are used to create value for customers. The concept of service is then represented by core products which are then accompanied by the supplementary products. Core products represent the core set of solutions and benefits delivered to the customer (Cant & Strydom, 2009.P. 293). It is the product made by a company for the customer and which undergoes some innovations and development in order to strengthens’ its features against other competitors products. For example a car is the core product while a warrant or service package are just a supporting product which are part of whole product .On the other side supplementary services usually augments core product thus facilitating its use and also enhancing its value and appeal. This helps in creating competitive advantage from rivals. Example of facilitating supplementary services are like order-taking, payments or billing. These services are needed for the delivery of services and thus help in the use of core products. In enhancing services it can be acts like hospitality, consultation and safekeeping. These enhancing services help in adding value to the services and thus assist a firm in competition with other potential rivals (Fisk, Grove& John, 2013. p.50).

At some point, suggestions or conclusions can be made on some particular things in regard to the management of a firm or organization. Some of the managerial implications are that firms that usually competes in low costs or without frills basis needs usually needs few supplementary elements in comparison to those marketing expensive with high value added to the services. The usually suggest which supplementary element can be offered as an option for extra charge and which supplementary service shall be offered as the standard package that will be accompanying the core. Managers also develop the product policy and pricing strategies with the key idea of balancing between the value of the product delivered to the customers and the cost that will be associated with the product (Fisk et al, 2012. p.98).

Customer-Defined Standards

The importance of firms using customer-defined standards is that is saves a lot of money at the same time delivered product according to their customers expectation. The company saves money by eliminating product features that are not even paid for nor recognized by their customers. There are also different types of customer defined standards namely soft standards, hard standards and one-time fixes (Hill, n.d). Hard standard can be defined by counting, timing or audit observing products for example a computer .Soft standard are opinions taken from customers as result of talking to them and which cannot be observed for example beliefs. Lastly One-Time Fixes standards are instituted policies, procedures or technology that helps in addressing the requirement of the customer (Maglio, 2010. p.209).

Physical Evidence Service

Sakariya, 2011). Physical evidence plays a very important role in packing of service, differentiation of service, facilitates creation and delivery of a service and also helps in socialization of the employee and their customers. The product being tangible it is usually defines in which environment it is delivered for the interest of the customer thus creating a contact between the sellers and buyers. Servicescape forms actual facilities where delivering, consumption or performance of a service is done. The role of packaging service has the function of expectation conveying and perception influencing. As a facilitator, it facilitates and ensures there is flow in the process of delivering a service while in socialization it facilitates customers’ interaction with the employees or customers with other customers. Physical evidence in differentiation helps in setting apart the provider from competition in consumers mind (

The Mehrabian-Rusell Stimulus-Response Model

.The model tries to illustrate people’s response to towards the environment and how environment is interpreted and viewed by different peoples. This is brought by the fact that feelings of people are central elements and their responses are driven by the environment. Similarly on the other side, different feelings and responses can be brought by the environment in which people are. They are two likely outcomes brought by the psychology of a particular environment namely avoidance of the environment or approach of the environment. In marketing of services, the outcome list the firm manages can be added including the money spent by people and also the time spent and the satisfactions that were experienced from the services (Sullivan & Adcock, 2002)

Russell’s Model of Affect

The model argues that arousal and pressure dimensions can be used to describe how emotions responded towards the environment. Pressure usually is the responds directly towards environment on the basis of the environment being liked or disliked by a person. Arousal on the other side describes how individual feels stimulated largely depending on the rate of information or environmental load. The model helps to judge the feelings of the customer in an environmental service and thus targets can be set by the firms that want customer to be in states that are effective.


Sense of the people and the interpretation of the environment influence and affects their processing cognitive. As the process cognitive becomes more complex it affect becomes more powerful with greater impact. Also simple cognitive such as music are still important and has some impact and determines the feeling of people. Still cognitive of higher level process has also some effect for instance the feeling of people in a surprising something is determined by the way surprise is interpreted. In environments that are pleasant behaviors area approach one buy avoiding the unpleasant behaviors thus leading to a response which is positive. On the other hand if the environment is unpleasant, customer is likely to move to distressed regions for instance very loud music to shoppers is likely to add some levels of stress (Binter, 1992).

and Implications on ServicescapeBitner’s Framework

The framework urges employee and consumers are influenced by elements of servicescape of affirm where respond to the environment by an individual will either be an avoidance behavior or approach behavior which approach being a positive response behavior and avoidance a negative response behavior. Due to this, it is common for many organizations to deliver services use cues like music in order to be able to change consumers’ behavior. Binter also stated that employee interaction with customer nature is affected by servicescape more particularly by services (Haynes & Nnningh, 210. p.156).

) ,2004. p.94SrinivasanPhysical environment perceptions lead to responses in beliefs, emotions and physiology leading to behavior being affected and this result to internal response of an individual. They can be categorized into emotional responses, physiological responses and cognitive response. Response which is cognitive can also be caused by services cape which influence belief’s of people concerning a place together with the products and humans who live in that place. Emotional response for customers together with employee can be explained as arousal or pressure with positive approach behavior being created by them. Pressure can be as a result of person’s greater control for example signage which is clear and space which is adequate. Arousals can be created by complexity for example richness in servicescape. In physiological response are like quality of air and people tend to react to servicescape in a physiological manner (


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