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Designing CCTV System for Gold Storage Facility

Table of Contents


5Level One


5The site plan

5Statement of problem


6Risk assessment

6Success criteria


7Level two

7The purpose of observation

8The target speed

8Operational issues

8The system requirements

8Alert function



9The archive

10Management issues


10Legal issues



11System specification


11Scene contrast


12Camera 1

12Camera 2

12Camera 3

12Camera 4

12Camera 5

13Camera 6



13System design specifications

13System test specification


14Commissioning and handover





In the recent years, CCTV has increasingly gained importance in UK. Initially, CCTV systems were installed in city centres and large establishment. However, they are now being used in schools, business premises, in transport services and banks to mention but just a few. The primary goal of installation of CCTV is to be used for surveillance and offer security either in private or public properties. In Modern world, they have become important in other field such as being used in medical processes, recording sporting activities and in large productions in industries (Hayes, R., & Downs, D. 2011).

CCTV systems are of different types but the two major types are wireless and wired security systems. One advantage with the wired system is that it cannot be hacked or tempered with external issues unless accessed internally. If security in the inside is tight then it is very difficult to temper with the internal installation of wired sources. On the other hand wireless CCTV systems are very easy to install as compared to wire systems since the wiring around the facility is not needed while installing the CCTV system. Additionally, it is also neat since the cables will not be running anywhere in the building. On the contrary, they have the disadvantage of being hacked by external sources using computerized means (Phillips, B. 2006).

In the installation of CCTV, there are important components that one needs to understand. Regardless whether the system is wired or wireless, cables are necessary in installation of CCTV. Cables are used to connect all the other components of CCTV. Video cameras are used for the purpose of recording pictures in motion. Display monitors diplays pictures that are captured by video cameras. Officers in charge of the system control the system via the monitor. Lastly, CCTV cameras capture still images. CCTV systems are used to provide security with minimal employees as well as record information that could be used in future, say criminal evidence in courts. (Fuentes, L. & Velastin, S. 2004). The paper that follows illustrates how CCTV system will be installed to monitor a gold storage facility.

Level One


The nature of threat or risk is very important to define before installation of CCTV system in order for the system to help prevent the problem or solve it (Cohen, N., Gattuso, J., & MacLennan-Brown, K. 2009). For this case of the gold facility, the threats available are theft and unauthorized entry. The CCTV will be required to offer surveillance to prevent the threats mentioned above from taking place. Gold is very expensive which may trigger break-in by criminals. Apart from CCTV installation, the assumption is that the building has other safety controls such as bullet proof storage doors and windows, the walls are made by reinforcing them with thick steel materials and all entries have alarm detectors. Furthermore, authorized personnel have to pass through facial recognition areas where there database is stored. CCTV is therefore required to offer surveillance over movement activities inside and outside the gold facility.

The site plan

Site plan is important because it will be used to help in installation. A site plan with detailed information is important because it will help indicate where cameras, lighting systems and monitoring area will be placed (EMCO, Division of Intertest, Inc,. 1990). In this case, the gold facility to be monitored is located between workshop and office. There are car parks, slide gate and officer as once heads to the facility. For easier monitoring, the cameras should be placed in parking areas, behind the gold facility, the fence behind the workshop and parking areas.. Appendix 1 indicates the site plan.

Statement of problem

As mentioned earlier, the threats facing the facility are theft, unauthorized entry, public safety and controlling crowd. These threats are likely to take place in the areas behind the gold storage facility, in the entrance areas and areas around the car park. These areas are marked in the site plan in appendix 2.


Installation of CCTV is complex and requires experts for the process to be successful. The management will also be required because they will indicate the locations where cameras and monitoring systems will be placed. CCTV technicians will be hired for installation and training employees on issues of maintenance. Lastly, the organization requires highly trained personnel to work in the monitoring section

Risk assessment

Given the nature of gold (precious and expensive), the likelihood of theft taking place is very high. CCTV monitoring will assist in reducing the likelihood of theft taking place. In case of theft, the organization will incur loss of billions of money, the organization would be required to refund customers who have stored their gold in the facility and lastly, the organization will lose its reputation. In the long run, the company would take year to bring it back and running due to the high losses.

Success criteria

According to Fan (2014), CCTV systems help to detect theft actions as well as identifying the intruders which helps in the next step of action. Prevention of theft is the best action since there would be huge losses if the criminals are not caught or identified. The success of the systems will be determined by their operations at all time and not by a single incidence that may be successful.


Despite having other safety measures such as good lighting systems, intruder detections alarms, electric fencing and slide doors, CCTV systems remains to be the best option to avoid theft in the gold storage facility. Furthermore, the systems can help in other security procedures such as deterring intruders and providing evidence in courts for crime investigation.

During investigations CCTV footage cab be used by police to find criminals who were involved in theft. Videos that are recorded by CCTV systems can also be used in court as evidence of intrusion or theft in the facility. In case of any loss, the recordings will help recover the losses (Fuentes, & Velastin, 2004). The necessary procedure follows level on of requirements as described below.

Level two

This section will detail important information answering the questions, “who do I need to see?” “Where do I need to see the person?” and “why do I need to see the person?” In answering the questions, it will be determine which types of cameras that are required and the activities to b observed. The purpose of CCTV system is to monitor movement activities inside and around the gold storage facility. Therefore, the cameras that are required are those with the capability of observing and monitoring number of individuals entering the facility, speed and direction of the people and detecting presence of individuals in the facility. In addition, they will need to have the capability of identifying number plates and cars entering the building and those parked in car parks.

The purpose of observation

The purpose of observation is to eliminate any incidence of theft. Therefore, the system is needed to observe individual’s activities and movement inside and outside the storage facility. The cameras needed for controlling and monitoring movement may have a lower level of image height than that one of recognizing/identifying the individuals.

The target speed

The frame-rate is determined by the speed activities. Cameras that are used to record real-time activities require high storage facilities with large memory space. Real-time recording in the facility is not necessary because the essence of the CCTV system is to monitor movement and detect theft. High frame rate recording will be appropriate in this facility (Fuentes, L. & Velastin, S. 2004). The CCTV will have a recording speed of 12 fps.

Operational issues

In the facility, the system will be operated by CCTV technician with specialized techniques in CCTV systems. His/her responsibility is to monitor activities during the day and check activities of previous night in the monitoring section. The person will have authority from management t fix any minor problems. The person will be operating in the control room where the display monitor will be allocated. In case of unusual activities, the CCTV technician will contact manager’s office immediately. The manager will take the next action accordingly.

The system requirements

Alert function

An alert system already exists in the building. The only requirement needed is to integrate the CCTV system with the alert system. The alert systems are located in the sliding gate and doors to the storage facility. The alert system will detect intruders going through the slide door or doors in the storage facility then a signal will be sent to the display in the control room. The Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS) will be used in the CCTV system since they have the capability of detecting motions inside or near the facility (Poole, N., Zhou, Q., & Abatis, P. 2009).

In case of entrance activity, the alert system will sent lighting signal and simple audible beep sound in the control room. When the signals appear in the control room, the CCTV technician will be able to observe activities taking place.


The system will have five CCTV cameras and five screens. One monitoring officer will operate in the control room where monitors will be placed. The displays will be the modern plasma displays for clear imaging and easier replacement in case of damage (Thiel, G. 2000).


Digital recording technology will be used. Hard drives similar to those used in computers will be applicable. This makes sure that infinite data is stored for 14 days before overwriting. It is recommended that the retention period of the video be around 31 days for busy places like the city (Cohen, N., Gattuso, J., & MacLennan-Brown, K. 2009). Since the gold storage facility is a private facility with few activities a retention period of two weeks is appropriate. Redundant Array of Independent Discs (RIAD) will be used to reduce risks of failure of hard drives. This will duplicate data in other storage system and incase of primary hard drive fails, the data can still be obtained (CCTV systems. 2006).

The archive

All data in hard drives will be copied in DVD before overwriting hard drives. The data will be of pictures and images of not more than 10n minutes. Higher data will be stored in USB devises (Poole, N., Zhou, Q., & Abatis, P. 2009).

Management issues


Australian Security Industry Association Limited is responsible for licensing of CCTV systems in Australia (ASG — Integracom. 2016). They are therefore part of the stakeholders to consult before installation of CCTV. The organization will first get license from ASIA before installation.

Legal issues

There are storage regulations that the organization must comply with besides licensing. The Data Protection Act (1998), guides on protection of personal information. The Freedom of information Act (2000) will help guide the obligations of individuals to access information stored in CCTV systems.The Human Rights Act (1998), The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000), The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (1994), The Police and Criminal Evidence Act (1984), The Protection from Harassment Act (1997), The Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act (1996), The Magistrates Court Rules (1981) and The Magistrates Court Act (1980) guides on procedures to be followed before accessing information(Cohen, N., Gattuso, J., & MacLennan-Brown, K. 2009)..


Maintenance procedures include cleaning lenses, screens and cameras replacing and repairing broken parts, maintaining camera locations, checking warrants of different parts, upgrading systems when required and protecting health and safety of all persons. These procedures will be conducted by control officer with authorization from administration.


The cost that the organization will undergo through includes purchasing systems, hiring experts for installation, modifying control room, cost of maintenance, training employees and maintaining other equipments such as ensuring Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) and having blank recording media (Poole, N., Zhou, Q., & Abatis, P. 2009). The money will come will come from organization savings and blank loans.

System specification


During the night, artificial lighting will be used and natural lighting during the day. However, inside the storage facility, the artificial lighting will be used all the times. There are flood lights already in the area. Caution will be taken since reflection from mirrors may damage lenses. Additionally, during bright day and cloudy nights, lens may cause flare. For these reasons, lens hoods will be place in top of lenses.

Scene contrast

The scene contrast recommended is 3:1 which is even to avoid poor imaging. The control officer will ensure the contrast is achieved every day. Extreme high lighting makes the images appear as silhouette while too dark conditions may make it difficult to distinguish the various objects in the scene.


The critical elements in cameras are sensor and lenses. These two determine capability of cameras (Fuentes, L. & Velastin, S. 2004). The positioning and maintenance of the cameras determine how effective they will be (Guides, D. 2017). There will be two types of cameras in the systems: the indoor and outdoor cameras. Natural light and floodlight at night will ensure that cameras work well. Below is a description of all the five cameras that will be used in the system.

Camera 1

It will be placed in the post above the parking area. The essence of this camera is to monitor individuals coming to the facility using vehicles. Additionally, it will be used to identify the number plates of the cars. The camera will be outdoor one with vertical height of 100.4 and horizontal length of 16.0m as well as doom of 3760o.

Camera 2

Similar features with camera one: outdoor camera of vertical height of 100.4 and horizontal length of 16.0 m. the lens used will be of doom 360 o. It will also be place on a different post in the car park to monitor individuals coming to the facility using vehicles and identify the number plates of the cars.

Camera 3

The essence of this camera is to monitor and control persons coming and going out og the gold storage to the administration via the sliding door. This will stop intrusion by unauthorized persons. It will be positioned on the top of the processing unit building. The camera will have 0.25 inch imaging, 7mm foal length and a fixed lens.

Camera 4

It will be located inside the gold storage facility. The resolution be high with lens of 10 mm focal length. Image sensor will be of 2.8 in height and ration of 4:3. This will be the camera connected with the alert system. The purpose of the camera is for identification and avoiding theft.

Camera 5

It will be placed on a pole 3m above the fence areas behind the gold store for detecting earlier stages of intrusion. The specifications will be lens image sensor of 0.50 inches, ratio of 4:3 and focal length of 27.0.

Camera 6

It will be place on the open area between workshop and storage area for the purpose of monitoring any fishy activities outside the storage. The specifications are image sensor of 0.5 ratio of 4:3 and field view of vertical height 52.0 and horizontal length of 80.0.


Since lenses will be purchased separately with cameras, it is important to ensure compatibility. They will also be ones that are easy to replace incase of damage. The lens will require electronic tilting using remote control in case of changes in lighting conditions. The focal length of the lenses will give a field view of 5-10% screen height.


Wired method of transition will be used. This is based on its advantage of not being hacked by external sources. Coaxial cable system with standard cables of RG59 will be utilized.

System design specifications

The contractor will be given site plan and a document specifying cameras, focal length required and locations of all the cameras. Additionally, the document will detail the height of installation, aim of surveillance, lighting system and display systems to be installed.

System test specification

After installation, the management and control and monitoring officer will check whether the system meets the requirement. In case of changed in specification, the contractor will be asked to give the reason and if viable, changes will be made in the plan. A security drill will also be conducted to see how the management would act in case of theft or intrusion incidence.


After planning, cables and hardware will be mounted in the right locations. The process will be documented in administration files. A copy of the document of installation process will be sent to the installation officer, another to ASIA and the original copy kept by the management.

Commissioning and handover

This is the last step of CCTV system installation. The commissioning shall involve testing of the installed system by the control technician. Handover will involve demonstration of the working of the system to the management and thereafter the management shall accept the installation of the system by signing.


CCTV systems are mostly used for surveillance although the technology is now being use in medical sector to monitor operations and also in games to record matches. The system is of either wired or wireless. The gold storage facility shall require installation of the system to control and monitor theft of the precious commodity. The wired system will be purchased from trusted contractor and installation will be in accordance to the plan of the area. Thereafter, the organization shall have one control officer who will be responsible for maintaining the system, providing recorded videos and images in case of an event and monitoring activities inside the storage facility while in the control room.


Best practices for the retrieval of video evidence from digital CCTV systems. (2006) (1st ed.). Arlington, VA.

Cohen, N., Gattuso, J., & MacLennan-Brown, K. (2009). CCTV operational requirements manual. St Albans: Home Office Scientific Development Branch.

EMCO, Division of Intertest, Inc,. (1990). CCTV camera system. NDT & E International, 23(4), 247.

Fan, S. (2014). Design and Implementation of Integrated Management System for CCTV Sites. The Journal Of Korean Institute Of Information Technology, 12(10).

Fuentes, L. & Velastin, S. (2004). Tracking-based event detection for CCTV systems. Pattern Anal Applic, 7(4), 356-364.

Guides, D. (2017). IP Video Surveillance Design Guide — Planning and Design [IP Video Surveillance]. Cisco. Retrieved 26 May 2017, from

Hayes, R., & Downs, D. (2011). Controlling retail theft with CCTV domes, CCTV public view monitors, and protective containers: A randomized controlled trial. Security Journal, 24(3), 237-250.

Phillips, B. (2006). The complete book of home, site, and office security (1st ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Poole, N., Zhou, Q., & Abatis, P. (2009). Analysis of CCTV digital video recorder hard disk storage system. Digital Investigation, 5(3-4), 85-92.

Requirements for Security Technicians — ASG — Integracom. (2016). Retrieved 30 April 2016, from

Thiel, G. (2000). Automatic CCTV surveillance-towards the VIRTUAL GUARD. IEEE Aerospace And Electronic Systems Magazine, 15(7), 3-9.


Appendix 1: overview of site plane

Security Sciences (( Surveillance Systems ))

Appendix 2: location of cameras as screen

Security Sciences (( Surveillance Systems )) 1