Describing interview sections Essay Example

  • Category:
    Education
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Masters
  • Page:
    4
  • Words:
    2775
  1. Introduction  

The interview guidelines were developed based on Gillham (2005) and Pickard (2007) recommendations. There were also addition ethical requirements. The guidelines included making the interviewee feel comfortable and relaxed, explaining the interview, explaining the interview organisation, telling the interviewee to read and sign the consent form and lastly enquiring whether the interviewee has any final questions (Seidman, 2013). After completion of the interview, the recording was listened and memos made. This includes thoughts, insights and ideas from the interview. The memos were compared between their raw data, categories and concepts.

2. Overview of the interview 

2.1 Interviews 

Semi structured interviews are useful in collecting qualitative data (Harrell & Bradley, 2009). This is through setting up the interview which is able to allow the respondents time and scope to express their opinions in a given subject (Wengraf, 2001). In this case, it involves interview on Learning Management System. The main focus of this interview has been decided by the researcher. In this interview, the objective was to get the respondent point of view and avoid making generalisations on LMS. The questions used were open ended where some were decided by the researcher. For example, questions such as (“Tell me about…”) while others arise naturally in the course of the interview. In this case, the researcher tried a lot in creating a rapport with the respondents. In this interview, the researcher had a clear plan and minimal control on the manner in which the respondent answered (Kajornboon, 2005). Use of semi structured interview helped a lot into delving deeply into the topic and gain a deep understanding on the answers (Harrell & Bradley, 2009).

The main strengths of use of semi-structured interviews are gaining a positive rapport (Wengraf, 2001). Use of semi-structured helped a lot in attaining a positive rapport between the interviewer and interviewee. This made it efficient and practical in attaining data about LMS from interviewees. It became easier to obtain the feelings and emotions (Kajornboon, 2005). It also enabled creating validity since the interviewees were able to give information in detail and depth (Harrell & Bradley, 2009). It was possible to gain the meanings behind every action since the interviewees were capable of speaking for themselves using a little direction from the interviewer.

In this case, the interviewer was able to probe the answers given by respondents. This included picking up any information that the interviewer lacked prior knowledge (Harrell & Bradley, 2009). In this case, the interviewees would give information that there was no prior knowledge. Use of semi structured interviews helped in clarification. Another issue that was eliminated is prejudgement in LMS (Wengraf, 2001). This occurs where the researcher predetermines what will be discussed and what will not. The interviewer in this case was not prejudging despite the few number of pre-set questions used. The method allowed ease of recording the interviews through use of audio on respondents’ answers (Harrell & Bradley, 2009).

Despite the advantages, the method faced several drawbacks. This is especially due to fact that the success of the interview depended on the skills of the interviewer (Wengraf, 2001). The interviewer was expected to have the ability to think of the questions during the interview. The articulacy of the respondent on the issues based on LMS also mattered a lot. In some cases, the interviewer gave unconscious signals which led to the respondents giving answers expected by the interviewer. This was unintended in this interview. The method was also time-consuming and a lot of expenses had to be set aside for the process (Seidman, 2013). Use of semi structured interview made it difficult to repeat a focused interview and the sample was small (Harrell & Bradley, 2009).

The interviewer faced a challenge in analysing some of the information. This is especially when deciding what is relevant and what is not. The personal nature of the interview made it hard to make generalisations (Harrell & Bradley, 2009). The researcher also faced some difficulty in establishing whether the respondent was lying. This is a situation that occurs when the respondent lacks a recall. Also, the responds in some cases may be trying to rationalise their behaviours or actions (Wengraf, 2001).

2.2 Methodology of an effective interview

Malinowski stressed the need of talking to people and gaining a grasp on their point of view (Kajornboon, 2005). This is due to fact that the point of view is very important on research for its ability to illuminate the meaning. The language has an expressive power to act as a resource for the accounts. Structured interview is a conversation with a purpose since human interaction brings the knowledge about the social world (DiCicco‐Bloom & Crabtree, 2006). The researcher in this case acted as an active player in data development and meaning. The knowledge is constructed between the collaboration between the interviewee and researcher (Rowley, 2012).

Before engaging in the interview, the researcher had to have a clear sense of the discussion. This is due to the important role they had to play in directing the process (DiCicco‐Bloom & Crabtree, 2006). The researcher had to be prepared to stage manage the interview to as to meet its purpose. The first step was establishing a relationship with the interviewee and involved being aware of the participants’ feelings such as anxiousness or hostility (Seidman, 2013). The researcher played the role of a guest while at the sometime being confident. At this point, the interviewer remained confident and relaxed and avoided research questions until the interview started. This was until the participants were comfortable and ready to start the interview (Harrell & Bradley, 2009).

The second step involved directing and introducing the research topic. This involved giving clear information on the interview and reaffirming confidentiality (Harrell & Bradley, 2009). The interviewer had to seek the permission from the participant to start the interview. At this point, it is vital to ensure that the environment is quiet, comfortable and private. At this point, a neutral start on the topic about LMS was preferred. The first question looked at knowing the interviewee by asking them about themselves. The questions aimed at looking what they teach in the institution and for how long. The initial questions play a role in determining how the respondents will answer. The fourth step occurred during the interview. The researcher has a role to guide the participant on key themes (Harrell & Bradley, 2009). This includes themes anticipated by the researcher as well as those which emerge from the interview. At this point, each subject on LMS was explored in depth and follow up was done using probes and questions. The fifth stage was ensuring the interview. At this point, the interviewee is allowed to return to the level for everyday social interactions (DiCicco‐Bloom & Crabtree, 2006). At this point, it is always vital to ensure that the respondent is not left with any unfinished business. This included ensuring that there is no unexplained issue or issue of burning importance (Rowley, 2012).

2.3 previous research that has used TAM and interviews 

TAM has received a lot of support over the years. It has been proved to be one of the most reliable and valid cognitive dimensions
(Wu & Wang, 2005). TAM has become one of the most used and reference d theory on technology adoption. This is especially in the computer usage behaviour. Studies have been widely used in the study of Internet banking adoption. The previous research shows that TAM has been used to research on adoption through use of three paths. The first path was used by researchers such as Lai & Li, (2005). They designed their model with an aim of targeting attitudinal behaviours of the internet banking adoption. The second path was used by Wang et al. (2003)
when investigating the factors which influence user intentions. Sathye (1999) used the third path of TAM theory to look at the factors that influence use of IB.

A study done by
Davis et al., (1989)
looked at the user acceptance of computer technology using TAM theory. Through use of TAM, the research aimed at explaining the determinants of computer acceptance. The study also utilised semi structured interviews. Through use of semi structured interviews and TAM, it was possible to investigate the topic in-depth (Hotrum, 2005). The study was able to prove that TAM can explain the intentions to use a system and can be enhanced through use of interviews (Lewis and MacEntee, 2005).

2.4 Importance of interviews

Interviewing plays a major role in understating the current adoption of a system before introducing new improvements (Wu & Wang, 2005). Through use of interviews, it becomes easy to know what the essential needs for the adoptions are (Harrell & Bradley, 2009). Through use of interview in this research, it becomes possible to increase the quality of analysis and save time (DiCicco‐Bloom & Crabtree, 2006). Use of open ended questions made it possible to increase the flexibility for the interviewees (Seidman, 2013). The analysts were able to get answers to the questions which were unanticipated in the LMS research and avoiding issues which might have arisen later (Rowley, 2012). The interview helped in supporting the available data gathered from other sources (survey) on LMS adoption.

3.0 Interview Particulars 

3.1 About the interviews

After the researcher testing the initial questions based on recommendations from Gillham (2005), Pickard (2007) and Rowley (2012), the interview was administered. The testing allowed the researcher to test the ability and familiarise with the questions. The interview questions were ensured to be clear and related to the research questions. Some amendments were made to the initial interview questions. The interview venue was selected near the universities (their work place) to ensure that the respondents were familiar with the surroundings. The interview took about 20 minutes for every respondent. The time limit was often affected by the need to ask probing questions and the information available by the respondent. The interview was recorded using digital recorders to record the voice.

3.2 Interview Sample

In qualitative research, the size of the sample is highly debatable. The sample selected was based on the guidelines given by Guest, Bunce and Johnson (2006). The suggested numbers of participants in a research are 30 to 50 based on Morse (1994), and twenty to thirty interviews based on (Creswell, 1998). Romney et al. (1986 in Guest et al., 2006), found that small samples can also be highly effective provided the participants had the required degree of expertise. The sample was selected based on theoretical sampling procedure. A concise sample was selected which represented the wider population. The selected sample was selected based on their faculty, degree and the experience in teaching.

3.3. Participants — overview of each participant e.g. Age, university, faculty they work it etc.

Long of teaching experience

College of Business Administration

One year+ one year previous experience

Arabic Language Teaching Institute for Non-Arabic Speakers

3 years+ 2 years previous experience

Arabic Language Teaching Institute for Non-Arabic Speakers

Bachelor

College of Computer Science

2 years+ 15 years previous experience

College of Computer Science

College of Community

3.4 Interview questions

The interview questions were designed based on procedure for carrying out a semi structured interview (Hotrum, 2005). The first question was aimed at knowing the interviewee. This created a good environment for the interview and created a close relationship. The question was framed on knowing about the interviewee (Tell me a little about yourself?). The second question was aimed at gaining knowledge on interviewee experience. This type of question helps in gaining the insight on the level of adoption and familiarity (Wu & Wang, 2005). The question also helped in knowing the challenges faced and how the university was helping. The interviewee perception on the use of LMS in higher education was also examined on the third question. The fourth question aimed at knowing the factors that helps the interviewee on the use of LMS. The fifth question was designed with an aim of knowing the factors that limit use of LMS.This included the personal factors, student attitude, gender issues, cultural issues, staff assistance, training and university incentives.

4.  Data analysis 

The data analysed from the interview started with the initial coding. This is where the available manuscripts were broken down with an aim of getting the initial concepts. The categories were then formed based on academics, use of LMS, management role in academics and the level of adoption of LMS (Hotrum, 2005). The second stage involved intermediate coding where concepts were categorised into small samples. New data was gathered based on a theoretical sampling technique. All categories were well developed with an aim of attaining theoretical saturation (Seidman, 2013). After attaining theoretical saturation in all main categories, connections were made on all developed categories. This also included subcategories together with their properties. At the advance coding, relationship was developed between the core category and the rest of codes in the theory. The analysis process used was linear with continuous overlapping between evidence stages (Kajornboon, 2005).

4.5 How the data was gained and translated

The data gained was analysed and kept in subcategories and categories. The main categories had aspects directly linked to the academics. The categories and subcategories were then coded using the grounded theory (DiCicco‐Bloom & Crabtree, 2006). The recorded data that was in the manuscripts was then utilised on the demonstration of adoption of LMS in collaboration with other data gained. The data in all core categories and sub categories was used together with data from the questionnaires to give concrete information required (Rowley, 2012).

4.5 Method for analysing the data  

The interview data was translated to English. Content analysis method was used where verbal and bahavorial data was categorised for classification, tabulation and summarisation (Kajornboon, 2005). Since the interviews were recorded, textual analysis was also used (Harrell & Bradley, 2009). There was use of constructed themes which had already been decided on the study. Coding was used to group interviewees responses based on similarity. Cross tabulation of interview data was used to determine use of LMS. This helped to find the trend of LMS use and how LMS could be used in different ways based on the positions. There were also questions on the number of courses taught. This was analysed to determine if the number of courses taught had an influence on LMS use. At this point, the analysis was able to determine whether experience determined the intention to use the technology.

References

Creswell, J. W. (1998). Five qualitative traditions of inquiry. Qualitative inquiry and research design, 47-72.

Davis, Fred D., Richard P. Bagozzi, and Paul Warshaw, R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Management science 35, no. 8: 982-1003.

DiCicco‐Bloom, B., & Crabtree, B. F. (2006). The qualitative research interview. Medical education, 40(4), 314-321.

Gillham, B., (2005), Research Interviewing the Range of Techniques. England: Open University Press.

Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field methods, 18(1), 59-82.

Harrell, M. C., & Bradley, M. A. (2009). Data collection methods. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Rand National Defense Research Inst. Santa Monica Ca.

Hotrum, M. (2005). Breaking Down the LMS Walls. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 6(1).

Kajornboon, A. B. (2005). Using interviews as research instruments. E-journal for Research Teachers, 2(1).

Lai, V. S., & Li, H. (2005). Technology acceptance model for internet banking: an invariance analysis. Information & management, 42(2), 373-386.

Lewis, B. A., and MacEntee, V. M., (2005) Learning Management Systems Comparison. Proceedings of the 2005 Informing Science and IT Education Joint Conference, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA -June 16-19

Morse, J. M. (1994). Emerging from the data: The cognitive processes of analysis in qualitative inquiry. Critical issues in qualitative research methods, 346, 350-351.

Pickard, A. J., (2007), Research Methods in Information, London: Facet Publishing.

Rowley, J. (2012). Conducting research interviews. Management Research Review, 35(3/4), 260-271.

Sandelowski, M., 1995. Sample size in qualitative research. Research in nursing & health, 18(2), pp.179-183.

Sathye, M. (1999). Adoption of Internet banking by Australian consumers: an empirical investigation. International Journal of bank marketing, 17(7), 324-334.

Seidman, I. (2013). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. Teachers college press.

Wang, Y. S., Wang, Y. M., Lin, H. H., & Tang, T. I. (2003). Determinants of user acceptance of Internet banking: an empirical study. International journal of service industry management, 14(5), 501-519.

Wengraf, T. (2001). Qualitative research interviewing: Biographic narrative and semi- structured methods. Sage.

Wu, J. H., & Wang, S. C. (2005). What drives mobile commerce?: An empirical evaluation of the revised technology acceptance model. Information & management, 42(5), 719- 729.