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Define Motivation and outline the Basic Model of Motivation. Describe the main needs and expectations managers have to take note of in order to motivate their employees to achieve company goals. In your answer: Essay Example

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Motivation Theories

Motivation is essential for high productivity of employees, it is a compelling force within an individual. Effective managers ensure maximum performance of employees achieving a company’s goals, by motivating employees. Remez Sasson (n.d), describes motivation as the inner power or drive that pushes one toward performing a particular task. Motivation is required to increase the determination, initiative and persistence to achieve a particular objective. Motivation can be intrinsic in that it is a self-desire or extrinsic in that influence to achieve an outcome comes from the external environment of the individual.

The basic model of motivation entails a need, drive and an incentive. The need is generated from a physical or psychological inequity for instance lack of food. The drive is a shortage with an objective or direction which generate actions aimed towards achieving or gaining an incentive.

The needs theory is the most prominent theory and focuses on individual’s need and ability to apply effort in achieving an establishment’s goals. Particular behaviours arise from the needs that could physical or psychological. This theory is based on three theories, first is the Maslow’s theory that is centred on a simple aspect that the needs of mankind are based hierarchically ranked (Maslow 1943, p.375). These needs are physiological and the highest level of the hierarchy is self-actualization and the last is physiological. The second is ERG model by Clayton P. Alderfer that categorises the human needs into existence, relatedness and growth needs and is a modification of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Alderfer 1969, p.142-175). This model portrays a manager’s initiative to recognize and satisfy the need of employees that may cause them to regress to relatedness with their co-workers and hence encourage them again. The third theory is McClelland’s theory on achievement motivation. It is based on three important needs that include, achievement, affiliation and power. Motivation is approached by the need for achievement (Atkinson & Norman 1974). The advantage of these theories is that it is based on human needs which is instinctual and motivation is food and shelter. The shortcomings of this theory is on the variability of the needs of human beings and hence the needs cannot be generalized. For instance in Trader Joe’s company (Lewis 2005), the employees are paid handsomely and they can effectively meet their needs hence, they are able to serve the customers effectively and give the company more profits as the customers are satisfied with their services.

The equity theory involves motivation based on fair interactions (Adam 1965, p.268). Equity by employees is by input on their performance and the managers provide the output through payments, benefits and job security. It involves perceptions and feelings and its benefits is that it enhances equity in the workplace, integrity, value and efficiency in the workplace. It is disadvantageous in that motives in the workplace can clash resulting in aggression and also equity in the workplace results in lack of variation of roles that could cause issues on performance and finance.

Managers need to take note of personal needs of employees such as food shelter and retirement benefits. Such in the case of Trader Joe’s store that provide good employ payments and results in high employee performance. They should also encourage fairness and equity among the employees. Training is also important to encourage performance

In conclusion, managers ought to recognize the needs of employees at the workplace. The equity model is important in encouraging equity at the workplace. The theories on needs are essential in recognising the needs of the employees and the manager to satisfy these needs to motivate the employees.


Adam, J. S., 1965. Inequity in social exchange. In: L. Berkowitz, ed. Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press, pp. 267-299.

Alderfer, C. P., 1969. An empirical test of a new theory of human needs. Organization Behaviour and Human Performance, Volume 4, pp. 142-175.

Atkinson, J. & Norman, F., 1974. A Theory of Achievement Motivation. 6th ed. s.l.:Krieger Pub Co..

Lewis, L., 2005. Trader Joe’s Adventure. Chicago: Dearborn Trade.

Maslow, A. H., 1943. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, Issue 50, pp. 370-396.

Sasson, R., n.d. What is Motivation and How to Strengthen It. Available at:
[Online] http://successconsciousness.com/strengthen_motivation.htm