• Category:
  • Document type:
  • Level:
  • Page:
  • Words:

Span of control

Span of control is a term that has been adopted in management especially in the human resource management. It is a term that is used to refer to the number of subordinates that exists for every senior staff or supervisor. The span of control is important to the organizational management as it offers the organization the opportunity to have the employees to be closely monitored. It also gives the subordinate staff an opportunity to be more independent in their activities. Finally it reduces the cost of labour as the organization forgoes the requirement of extra managers and also makes communication within the organization more effective.

Job design

Tasks are required to be conducted to satisfy the technological and organizational requirements of an organization provide for the job design of the organization. Job design also refers to the social requirements of the individual job holder. The importance of job design in an organization is that it provides job satisfaction to the employees as it reduces the employee problems thus reduces instances of absenteeism and grievances. The job design also provides quality in management and output as the stakeholders are well aware of their duties and actions within the organization.

Operational system

The term is mostly applied in data warehousing as it provides for the different processes that are used by an organization in its daily activities. The importance of operational system is that is helps to preserve transactions that are made in the organization. the processes that are applied in the organization are easily manipulated with the help of the operational systems to make them consistent. The importance of the operational systems is that they provide efficiency within the organization and integrity is preserved as data is saved and managed in the systems easily.

Diversification strategy

Diversification means entering a new market or change of the company’s products. Diversification is usually a corporate strategy where companies venture to produce new products for the consumers that help them to retain and gain more customers [ CITATION Ric093 p 55 l 1033 ]. It also entails a strategy where companies venture into new markets by partnering with other companies or through foreign direct investment. The importance of diversification is that it helps companies to gain competitive advantage of their competitors. The idea of diversification was defined by Igor Ansoff when he defined the growth strategy for a product or market matrix [ CITATION Kri13 p 2 l 1033 ].

Balanced Scorecard

The balanced scorecard is a management system that is used for strategic planning that allows most organizations to align themselves with the vision strategy of the organizations. The balanced scorecard focuses on four main vision and strategy opportunities for the organization namely; customer satisfaction, financial performance of the organization, the efficiency of the internal business processes and knowledge and innovation as main determinants of organizational capacity. The importance of the balanced scorecard is that it helps to improve the internal and external communication as well as monitor the performance of the organization with the goals that have been set [ CITATION Kap10 l 2057 ].

Part C: Essay Question 2

The traditional vertical command structures have many levels of management each controlling a defined group. The horizontal structures popularly known as the flat organizational structure has fewer management levels. The reason for making the structural changes is to allow reduce the management levels in the organizations to allow for better effective communication. The changes in organization structure also work towards providing employee empowerment rather than holding on to the chain of command.

Benefits of restructuring the organizations

The first benefit of restructuring the organization is to reduce the communication barriers that exist where the chain of command is large and complicated. Where information is channels through a number of levels, it can be easily changed and at some time it may not reach the required level.

Secondly, the restructuring from the vertical command structures to the flat organization management structure allows the employees of the organization to be empowered and to report where they are most comfortable. The restructuring reduces the span of control levels and thus helps in making communication more effective.

Potential problems

The restructuring of organizations from the vertical command structures to the horizontal structure increases the workload of the directors as they are expected to manage reports and work of requests from more employees. The directors are team leader who are expected to be innovative and generate ideas that trigger growth in the organization. However, with the reduced managerial levels, the directors’ workload usually increases making it hard for them to find time to generate innovative ideas to hamper growth in the organization.

Part C: Essay Question 3

The content theories of motivation are theories that have been developed to explain the changes in human needs within a stipulated time frame. The content theories have been developed to try and explain the different factors that usually determine the behaviour of individuals. among the content theories of motivation that have been developed include the . Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is the most commonly used of the theories. It usually provides human needs according to levels. A total of five levels exist for the Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. The order of these needs from the lowest level are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and tERG Theory and Management Assumptions (Theory X and Theory Y), McClellands Need for Achievement, Affiliation and PowerMaslows Hierarchy of Needs, he final one being self-actualization.

The process theory on the other hand is one that tries to answer the question of the process required for motivation. The process theories attempt to explain hoe behaviour of the individuals is directed, energized, sustained or stopped. The process theories that have been developed include the expectancy theory, goal setting theory, equity theory and reinforcement theory. The reinforcement theory is the widely used of the theories and it argues that the behaviour of individuals is highly influenced by the consequences of the behaviour. Developed by B.F Skinner, the theory is based on four major principles of the operant conditioning. These principles are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction.


Kaplan, R. S. (2010). Conceptual Foundations of the Balanced Scorecard. 37.

Kristina, B. (2013). Kristina Bachmeier. California: GRIN Verlag.

Richard, S. N., William, S., & Peter, W. (2009). Breaking Into New Markets: Emerging Lessons for Export Diversification. Washington DC: World Bank Publications.