DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY Essay Example

  • Category:
    Culture
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    1
  • Words:
    568

DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY

In 1930 astronomers, observations
convinced them that
the
universe
had
some
forces that were
holding
things
together. Otherwise, the
movement around galaxies would cause them to spin
apart. The
normal
matter
known on the
universe
comprising of protons, electrons, and neutrons consist of 5% of the
universe. 25% proportion of the
universe
goes to invisible
unknown
substances
called
dark
matter
and 70% comprises of energy that repels
the
gravity
called
dark
energy (Sahni 2005; Bertone, Hooper, and Silk 2005) In 1990, Alan Guth
.and Alexes Starobinsky argued
that
the
universe
equilibrium is never
stable
due to expansion
activities that release
energy. Negative
pressure
field
exist in the
universe that causes a repulsive
force. Hence
causes exponential expansion. The
first
evidence of dark
matter
and
dark
energy
came from observations of accelerated
expansion of the
universe in 1998. A physicist Michael named the energy causing this expansion as Dark energy. Since then
physicians
have
conducted
numerous
experiments to determine
what
dark
matter
and
dark
energy are.(Comelli, Pietroni, and Riotto 2003; Davis et al. 1985; Farrar and Peebles 2004; Frieman, Turner, and Huterer 2008)
Physicists’ effort
is curtailed by the
fact
that
dark
matter
neither
does
it
emit
or
absorb electromagnetic radiation
nor
does
it
absorb
light. They
infer
it is present by its gravitational effects. For
example, stars in galaxies
move
faster than it can be explained by attraction of the
visible
matter
only. The
pattern of a large
structure of galaxies is controlled by dark
energy from dark
matter (Ostriker and Steinhardt 2003; Miralda-Escudé 2003)
. However, physicists are trying
experiments to catch
dark
particles as they
stream to the
earth
because
it is believed
dark
matter
comprises
particles
that interact with normal
matter weakly but in every
second without trace. Although there is no
evidence
obtained
so
far. Recently, Large Underground Xenon detector in South Dakota, the
most
powerful
detector, has not detected
any
dark
matter after the
first three months of work
but
it is scheduled to learn
for 300 days
more. Meanwhile, physicists are designing
detectors that are more
powerful hoping dark matter will be discovered in the near future (Presenter et al. 2013; Ostriker and Steinhardt 2003; Kunz and Sapone 2007).

Works cited

Bertone, Gianfranco, Dan Hooper, and Joseph Silk. 2005. “Particle Dark Matter: Evidence, Candidates and Constraints.” Physics Reports 405 (5): 279–390.

Comelli, D., M. Pietroni, and A. Riotto. 2003. “Dark Energy and Dark Matter.” Physics Letters B 571 (3): 115–20.

Davis, Marc, George Efstathiou, Carlos S. Frenk, and Simon DM White. 1985. “The Evolution of Large-Scale Structure in a Universe Dominated by Cold Dark Matter.” The Astrophysical Journal 292: 371–94.

Farrar, Glennys R., and P. James E. Peebles. 2004. “Interacting Dark Matter and Dark Energy.” The Astrophysical Journal 604 (1): 1.

Frieman, Joshua, Michael Turner, and Dragan Huterer. 2008. “Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe.” arXiv Preprint arXiv:0803.0982. http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.0982.

Kunz, Martin, and Domenico Sapone. 2007. “Dark Energy versus Modified Gravity.” Physical Review Letters 98 (12): 121301.

Miralda-Escudé, Jordi. 2003. “The Dark Age of the Universe.” Science 300 (5627): 1904–9.

Ostriker, Jeremiah P., and Paul Steinhardt. 2003. “New Light on Dark Matter.” Science 300 (5627): 1909–13.

Presenter, Jim Al-Khalili, Light, Dark, and B. B. C. Four. 2013. “How Close Are We to Finding Dark Matter?” BBC News. November 18. http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-24987749.

Sahni, Varun. 2005. “5 Dark Matter and Dark Energy.” In The Physics of the Early Universe, 141–79. Springer. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-31535-3_5.