Critique of the literature

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Critique of the Litеrаturе 12



The following paper intends to provide a brief analysis of the readings which include “A Conceptual Framework for Mentoring in a Learning Organization”, “Developing Attitudes toward an Entrepreneurial Career through Mentoring: The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy” and “What’s happening in coaching and mentoring? And what is the difference between them?” Firstly, the paper provides the rationale of each article and criticism before identifying the similarities and contrasts in all readings (Klinge 2015). Finally, the paper outlines the significance of the readings in my future career as a mentor.

Article 1: “A Conceptual Framework for Mentoring in a Learning Organization.”

The objective of the article is to provide a conceptual framework for mentoring as an additional component in a learning organization. The framework has been contextualized for adult learning with the application of development theories. Understandably, mentoring is defined as a process where an experienced individual guides another person in developing his or her ideas, professional/personal competence, and learning (Klinge 2015). The process of mentoring makes use of the transformational type of leadership theory by critical reflecting in a non-judgmental manner as well as addressing the pedagogical principle that asserts that experience is one of the greatest assets in adult learning (Klinge 2015). The author of the article contends that in any learning organization, adult development should be fostered for the mentor as well as for the mentee.

To ensure that the process is productive, the mentoring programs need to be a partnership between the mentor and the mentee. The author has noted the gap by observing that the learning organization model of adult education was initially formulated without the component of mentoring (Klinge 2015). However, the author contends that mentoring relationships offer significant collaborative and experiential learning opportunities, which aim at supporting the development of any learning organization. The article has also discussed critical issues in the process of designing the mentoring program to facilitate the development of a sustained learning organization and the challenges encountered. According to the author, the expected of the successful mentoring program include the proper application of new knowledge in everyday assignments, collaborative as well as individual analysis of problems and their possible solutions, evaluating new strategies and technologies and their utilities, as well as creating new business plans for a learning organization (Klinge 2015).

Based on the above overview, the article was selected since it provides the chronological order in which a conceptual framework of a mentoring program can be integrated into a learning organization. At the same time, the author has also provided the benefits that a mentor, mentee, and the learning organization will get after using the framework. Finally, the author has gone ahead to explain some of the pitfalls that one should expect when formatting and implementing the program in a learning organization.

Article 2: “Developing Attitudes toward an Entrepreneurial Career through Mentoring: The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy.”

In this article, the author is studying the importance of mentoring in career choice and satisfaction. According to the author, mentoring is known for its role in supporting career opportunities as well as developing persons in different capacities. The study forms part of few research works on the effect of mentoring on career satisfaction as well as retention of novice entrepreneurs.

In the study, the researcher surveyed 360 novice entrepreneurs who had been provided support by the mentor (E´tienne & Mathieu 2015). According to the authors, the assessment demonstrated that mentoring has the direct effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy, which helps in mediating the relationship that exists between the intention of staying in a given profession and satisfaction of being an entrepreneur (E´tienne & Mathieu 2015). On the other hand, the authors observed mentoring has not only the indirect impact on achievement but also has the direct negative effect on intention (E´tienne & Mathieu 2015).

According to the researchers, the results could be attributed to the awareness of novice on the limitations of the previous business project (E´tienne & Mathieu 2015). Consequently, the researchers concluded that since entrepreneurs are tied closely to their respective business projects, mentoring need to commence earlier in the process of entrepreneurial so that it may influence career satisfaction as well as retention of a novice entrepreneur.

The selection of this article was deliberate as it touches on the role of mentoring in advancing one’s career. The article also examines the correlation between mentoring and career satisfaction. At a personal level, this is instrumental as I look forward to being a professional instructor in future. The study will play a decisive role in helping me shape the career path of my clients in future.

Article 3: “What is happening in coaching and mentoring? And what is the difference between them?”

The article talks about the relationship that exists between coaching and mentoring. Based on the author’s perspective, mentoring and coaching are much more similar than, they are different (Clutterbuck 2008). In his observation, the author has outlined two types of mentoring which directly relate to coaching. The two types of mentoring include sponsorship coaching and developmental mentoring. Sponsorship coaching is where the influence and important of the mentor determines the direction taken by the program. In addition, the developmental mentoring is where the mentor concentrates on how to improve the mentee’s ability in learning and other life skills (Clutterbuck 2008). However, the bottom line is that both developmental coaching and mentoring are geared towards enhancing the mentee’s ability (Parsloe & Leedham 2009).

At a personal observation, coaching is one of the instrumental aspects of helping people be aware of them, enhance their abilities and make good of life at every stage (Estrella-Henderson & Jessop 2015). The premise behind coaching is toward allowing clients come to solve their problems with the help of a coach (Harkness 2010). In this case, a coach acts as an instructor to guide the client on the most suitable and applicable methods of the approaches in handling a life issue. There are various types of coaching, including executive or business, sport and life or personal coaching. Basically, coaching guidelines entail the need to create good relationship and trust between the coach and the client, which facilitates understanding the problem affecting a person. After this, a coach should have an action plan that has timelines for implementation.

Admittedly, both coaching and mentorship require certification to ensure that an individual is qualified to provide such services. The main objective of coaching and mentorship certification is that it equips one with leadership skills such as teamwork, patience, and problem solving. The article is critically important in my future as a mentor since it provides the basic similarities that exist between mentorship and coaching (Clutterbuck 2008). Personally, I have learnt the aspect of being a good listener when talking with clients as well as having good communication skills, which is critical in mentoring and coaching. However, I will need to work more on my problem solving techniques in order to have different approaches in any given mentoring or coaching situation.

Similarities and Contrast in the Above Articles

In references to the above articles, there are many similarities as opposed to contrasts. However, the direct chronological connection among the three studies is what makes them critically significant. In all articles, the authors have emphasized on the importance of mentoring in life. For example in the first article on the development of conceptual framework In mentoring , the author observes that the mentorship program should be transformational where the mentee’s skills in life should always be belter after completing the mentoring sessions (Klinge 2015). The objective is to ensure that one is able to become more skillful and experienced in dealing with life issues through the mentor. On the other hand, the second article on the role of mentioning in the career growth and job satisfaction also emphasis on the need to guide novice entrepreneurs on the right path to take in business ventures. Therefore the study also helps in understanding the role of mentoring program in shaping the life of not only an entrepreneur but also every person, provided the mentoring sessions are started early enough in life. The last article is instrumental in providing the basic connections between coaching and mentoring. As a future mentor, it would be prudent to understand the key differences and similarities of mentorship and coaching (Clutterbuck 2008). In the article, the author also endorses the role that both mentoring and coaching programs play developing the abilities of an individual in life (Clutterbuck 2008). The author has concentrated mostly on the developmental mentoring and coaching as opposed to sponsorship coaching. Based on the above observations, it is clear that the three articles are in agreement on the importance of mentoring in shaping the people’s life. On the other hand, the three article have distinct differences in that in the firsts article on conceptual framework , the author is concentrating on the organizational contest where the mentoring framework need to be applied (Klinge 2015). The second article is focusing on the business or entrepreneurial aspects and how to help an individual who is aiming at climbing the business ladder. Therefore, the first two articles are specific in their areas of focus. Conversely, the last article is providing a general observation on the correlation between coaching and mentorship, thus giving every person who is in the field of mentoring, the basic aspects of coaching and mentorship. However, the three articles are instrumental in helping any future mentor to know the prevailing gaps, the role of the mentorship in entrepreneurship and basic elements of coaching and mentoring, respectively.

Main Issues Raised In Each Reading

Accordingly, as mentioned above each of the three articles have critical importance in my future career as a mentor. Evidently, every article has raised significant aspects that are key in the field of mentorship. The following section tend to highlight some of the main issues each article has outlined and which play instrumental role in my future endeavors in mentorship.

In the first article, “A Conceptual Framework for Mentoring in a Learning Organization”, the author has provided the importance of having mentoring program in an adult learning organization. According to the author, it is prudent that a learning organization integrates mentoring programs, which should be incorporated in the cultural systems of a given organization (Klinge 2015). Therefore, the formulation of conceptual framework and its implementation is instrumental in ensuring that mentors in learning organizations have the guiding framework in which they should follow when offering their services. At a personal level, I find the development of conceptual framework critical in future career as a mentor. My objective is to fieldwork in an organization not only as a mentor but also as a counselor. Therefore the presence of such a framework will guide me in my services as well as getting the support that I will require from the management, as the framework will have been integrated in the organizational structure.

The second article, “Developing Attitudes toward an Entrepreneurial Career through Mentoring: The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy”, the author has discussed the three roles of mentor functions which can be categorized into psychological functions, role modeling, and career-related functions. The author has also given different dimensions in each category where for instance in psychological functions a mentor should consider reassurance, reflection, motivation and confidence as the main aspects of service delivery to clients. In the career-related roles, the author has included dimensions such as informational support, dealing with confrontation, and guiding an individual on the best decisions to make in career pursuit. In my career as a mentor, I wish to come across clients who would like advice on the suitable career paths to follow in their lives. Therefore, I will intend to apply the information in the article when serving my mentees.

In the last article, the author has outlined the similarities between coaching and mentoring (Clutterbuck 2008). For example, in both ways, a mentor is supposed to draw and build on the mentee’s experience (Clutterbuck 2008). As I noted earlier, I intend to be both a mentor and a counselor. Counseling is a form of coaching which correlates with many aspects of mentoring. Therefore, the information will be instrumental in both counseling and mentoring careers in future.

Critiquing the Arguments

Although most of the issues raised in the three readings are relevant, there are some arguments, which are wanting. For example in the first article on conceptual framework, the author is asserting that mentoring frameworks are lacking in learning organizations. However, even though this could be factual, it does not mean that the use of mentoring framework is the only way to make mentoring programs in learning organizations successful. Evidently, there are many learning organizations, which have integrated successful mentoring programs without concise frameworks. In another angle, integrating frameworks in organizational cultures would force other institutions to restructure their operations, which may make them avoid the use of the conceptual framework. Further, in the second article, the author argues, “ESE positively influences job satisfaction.” To some extent, this argument is correct, but it is applicable in every situation. For example, job satisfaction refers to the contentment on the work that one is doing at a particular time. An individual may not be satisfied with the job but the outcome of the job itself, which may disapprove the statement.

Finally, the last article on the correlation between coaching and mentorship categorized mentorship into two including sponsorship and developmental (Clutterbuck 2008), which could be controversial. The author is right in emphasizing on the developmental aspect of mentorship, but mentoring cannot be only categorized into two since there are many forms of mentoring such as executive or business, sport, and life or personal mentoring.

Synthesis of the Major Findings from the Three Readings

After analyzing the contents of the three readings, I found that all articles are relevant in future role and responsibilities as a mentor. For example, the first article has emphasized on the need to integrate conceptual framework in learning organizations. Although not all critics would agree with that argument, having a framework will be instrumental in helping mentors to apply their skills in a more structured way. At the same time, the article has outlined the benefits which the three parties

Although the second article concentrates on the retention of entrepreneurial career, where the author finds that novice entrepreneurs will like to retain their business if they believe its satisfying, I expect to also find clients who will be requiring advice on whether to venture into business or employment. Finally, as noted above, coaching, mentoring, and counseling share almost common characteristics. Consequently, in my future I intend to incorporate the basic aspects enumerated in the article, which I will apply.


The paper has provided a brief analysis of the three readings including the conceptual framework in mentoring, the role of mentoring in job satisfaction as well as coaching and mentoring. The paper concludes that all the articles provide relevant and applicable material in the future career as a mentor.


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