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Critique of a paper using a relevant methodology for your research on your research topic. Essay Example

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Article critique

University Affiliation


The article to be critiqued was authored by Nancy et al and was entitled High Tech and High Touch: A Framework for Understanding User Attitudes and Behaviors Related to Smart Interactive Services. The study was commendable because of the great deal of professionalism and methodological techniques applied. To appreciate various research aspects of the article, this paper presents an in-depth analysis, which describes the methodology used, in a bid to find out whether it would be appropriate for my research question. In addition, the scope of the paper will cover choice of methodology in the context of various alternatives and important lessons acquired from the study.

Critical analysis

The study presented in the article aimed at investigating usage of smart interactive services because it had been realized that organizations find it extremely difficult to gain user acceptance. Acceptance of smart interactive services presented a noteworthy challenge because unlike other technologies, it required a great deal of collaboration and human-to-human interaction. Despite significant challenge in technological acceptance, smart interactive services including telemedicine, remote repair of equipment and remote diagnosis were among the fastest growing innovations in world market (Kothari, 2004 p. 19). The methodology applied, in a bid to address the challenge of rejection, was based on grounded theory approach.

Methodology selected for the research created a two-phased study where initial findings were to be used for further study. Historically, studies related with psychological aspects of consumers have been one of the most complicated. To overcome anticipated challenges, researchers chose to acquire initial data by drawing on depth interviews. Data acquired from interviews were then used to formulate a framework of obstacles and facilitators to users’ behavioral and attitudinal responses towards smart interactive services.

The first segment of the study was predestined to investigate if smart interactive services are an incongruity or if they are really a new and advancing phenomenon. The aim of the phase also covered applicability of the technology in various industries. The phase utilized an interactive forecasting method, which enabled 126 experts to brainstorm on the problem via structured interactive communication process. Participants were selected based on knowledge of services and technologies applied in the fields of household appliances, automotive, health care, mechanical engineering and Information Technology. Experts were identified via research and pyramiding. In other words, experts had an opportunity of recruiting other experts, making the work of researchers easier.

The second phase of the study, dubbed interview study, was meant to analyze technological barriers that had been identified by the experts. Some of the barriers, which had been emphasized were control issues, trust issues, need for personal contact and security concerns (Weber, 1990 p. 189). The second study aimed at investigating various acceptance barriers that could be instrumental in increasing applicability of various technological products affiliated with smart interactive services. Mechanical engineering was selected for developing theoretical and conceptual model since smart interactive services were already used in the field, particularly printing industry (Newman, 1998 p. 209). Ideally, a case study was used to understand various problems associated with the technology. Underlying dimensions related with usage of smart interactive services were unearthed by employing in-depth face-to-face interviews with various stakeholders in the sector. Initial strategy of recruiting knowledgeable interviewees was still applied to ensure high quality, reliable and up-to-date information concerning the topic.

Analysis of the data was done using the grounded theory approach, which was created by Glaser and Strauss. The method was selected because in the recent times, it had been successfully applied in marketing and organizational management literature (Neuendorf, 2002 p. 37). The approach dictated that data are to be gathered and analyzed simultaneously. In practical sense, numerous mistakes may be recorded with such a system. The reason is that every collected datum is associated with certain degree of errors. The researchers did a commendable job in formulating a qualitative study design, which involved collecting data within the respondent’s environment (Rogers & Lea, 2005 p. 158). The design aimed at employing best practices to enhance reliability and validity. Nevertheless combining the qualitative study design with face-to-face interviews presented new challenges because barriers could easily emerge. Numerous errors could result from disturbance, failure to understand questions posed, limited time for interviews and biases (Mattila, 1999 p. 377). Use of questionnaires could have been the best method of collecting data under such environments because the experts could have found free time necessary for providing comprehensive information. In that respect, environmental barriers could have been easily overcome leading to reduced errors and enhanced quality of data.

Grounded theory approach gave room for biases because it dictated that constant comparison and contrast of data and theory was to be made during data collection and analysis processes (Ketchen, 2006 p. 309). It could be possible for researchers to alter some elements of findings to ensure that theoretical expectations are met. To improve the quality of findings, the researchers could have also considered integrating discourse analysis. The theory, which was developed by Margaret Adolphus, is helpful in the context of qualitative data analysis (Hooper, 2013 p. 14). In the past, various researchers have noted importance of the theory in analyzing quantitative data. The mixed methods research could have also been instrumental because of its nature in handling both qualitative and quantitative data.

The article was a fundamental source of information concerning various strategies that can be applied in research and data analysis. The concept of pyramiding, which involved allowing experts to recruit fellow professionals in the field, can be greatly helpful in finding qualified individuals to assist in research. Besides, the method enabled researchers to reduce costs that could have been used to vet potential participants and reduce time required for finding potential candidates. It is important to put into consideration the fact that researchers chose to apply the grounded theory approach, which had never been used for technology-affiliated research. The level of success recorded indicates that various theories that have been applied in various academic fields may be useful under certain circumstances (Keightley, 2010 p. 56). The idea behind conducting face-to-face interviews within the respondent’s environment was meaningful because of beliefs associated with real-life contexts (Haris, 2012 p. 109). The researchers’ effort contributed immensely to reliability, validity, applicability and accuracy of collected data. Under such settings, it would be stress-free for an interviewee to relate to what was happening in normal work contexts.


Although methodology applied by the researchers of the article was associated with certain downfall, it was a vital source of information. Ultimately, the researchers were able to formulate a comprehensive study methodology that led them to understanding behaviors and attitudes linked with consumption of smart interactive services. The grounded theory approach was used in the study to assist in creating understanding of attitudinal and behavioral challenges that affected smart interactive services. The grounded theory approach, which was developed during the 1960s, had never been used in the field.

Research design was strategically formulated bearing in mind nature of challenges to be faced and core objectives of the study. Throughout the article, the audience can note the great deal of professionalism and reasonableness adopted by the scientists. Although the grounded theory approach produced salubrious result, other methods could have been considered to enhance quality of findings and reduce chances of bias.

The methodology used by the researchers presented numerous lessons that one can apply when performing similar operations. To begin with, the research design was uniquely crafted and implemented, leading to reliability and ease in acceptance of findings. Great lessons also emerged from use of the concept of conducting face-to-face interviews and using pyramiding to recruit participants.


(6), ebi-ebi.15, International Journal of Social Research MethodologyHaris, G. (2012). International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory & Practice.

, 1-14.4, International Journal of Social Research MethodologyHooper, C. (2013). Recognition as a framework for ethical participatory research: developing a methodology with looked after young people.

Keightley, E. (2010). Remembering research: memory and methodology in the social sciences. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 13(1), 55-70.

. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI.Research methodology in strategy and managementKetchen, D. J. (2006).

(2nd rev. ed.). New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd..Research methodology methods & techniquesKothari, C. R. (2004).

Mattila, Anna S. (1999), ‘‘The Role of Culture and Purchase Motivation in Service Encounter Evaluations,’’ Journal of Services Marketing, 13 (4-5), 376-389.

Neuendorf, Kimberley A. (2002), The Content Analysis Guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press.Qualitative-quantitative research methodology exploring the interactive continuumNewman, I. (1998).

Rogers, Paul and M. Lea (2005), ‘‘Social Presence in Distributed Group Environments: The Role of a Social Identity,’’ Behavior & Information Technology, 24 (2), 151-158.

Weber, Robert P. (1990), Basic Content Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.