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Critical Reflection

Globalization is one of the greatest of influences to impact education in the 20th century. Education has evolved from a fragmented, national and institutional concept to become something which drives the social, economic and political development of not only the nation but the globe.

The need for enhancement of international business has resulted into the development of systems which are aimed at the development of economic relationships. This necessitates the need for political, social and cultural relationships which serve to further enhance globalization. In the current context of education, information and technology are deemed critical aspects to which globalized education systems may be attributed. Changes in the socioeconomics and politics of different countries while resulting in modifications of education systems have nevertheless not changed the role played by education in most of these societies (Lauder et al, 2008).

Even as there has been exponential growth in educational methodologies many of these methodologies have focused on making the learner fit the changing economic realities. Christie (2008) asserts that globalized education impacts the society through new communication and information technologies, integrated economies, and social cultural relationships.

As a teacher in the UAE I have seen the impact of globalization firsthand in my country where I have been teaching for the past 12 years. The UAE has transformed from a rural backwater country into a modern country and this has also been evident in education. Education in Saudi Arabia while being constantly modernised is facing challenges given the differences in the rural and urban schools. Buckingham (2010) asserts that information and communication technologies are critical for the development of education even though this would be hard to implement in a country having huge socio-cultural and demographic differences. The government finds it hard to reconcile how to supply same education to city learners and to the rural areas wherein some learners in the rural areas still live a nomadic lifestyle in which information and communication technologies are virtually non-existent.

Education is also influenced to a great extent by the economics of the education endeavour. People the world over deem education as a means to a better life. However for governments and corporations, education ought to produce persons that are suitable inputs into a production economy. Firms have become extremely powerful in the determination of the content of education. As such what is studied by learners is geared towards the production of persons that fit what the industries want rather than what the learners’ desire. Education which is influenced by corporations has become narrow and tasteless since standardization of methods of testing and achievement are set by firms rather than by the society (Spring, 2008). Given that poor persons look at education as a means of getting out of poverty they would seek to pursue education which the market is looking for and hence they would not gain from diversity and inquiry offered by non standardized education. Education is thus transformed into a tool for increasing the social cultural, economic and political divide in society.

In conclusion I do believe that even as Mathew (2012) asserts that adoption of hybrid pedagogies is desirable, it may be hard to implement. This is due to the fact that economic, social cultural and political realities which favour non inclusion are still too much ingrained in the policy making processes in education.

Response to Student

The utilitarian principle of the greatest happiness or benefit for the greatest number of people is an important aspect for every society. However in the context of education while it is desirable to implement this ethical concept, the realities of globalized economic an politics mean that this is for the most part unattainable (Mathews, 2011).

The globalized nature of interdependencies in economics, political, social and cultural relationships which have erased state and territorial boundaries have greatly impacted education policy. The development of communication and technology and the creation of intricate international organizations are critical in understanding the changing contexts of education. The person is currently not undertaking education as a private endeavour but rather in the context of an increasing influence of communication and technology and international and local economics, international law and external influences in terms of emerging technologies (Christie, 2008).

While globalization has resulted in undesirable ethical issues due to the formulation of unfavourable policies such as standardization which are geared towards economic benefit and free market thinking it is not all bad. Globalized education has to be analyzed from the context of the marketplace in which they operate. Since the world mostly operates on capitalist free market policies it is only advisable that education prepares people ready for the environment they live in.

The lack of education and the divide between the different demographics in a country are a source of great inequality in a country and hence need to be addressed. Even as I agree with Castells on the need for people to have access to information in order to have a good education, it may not be economically feasible to offer equitable education in terms of technology and information communication due to economic constraints in some states (Lauder et al, 2008). However I do believe the capacity of teachers ought to be increased in addition to making efforts at gradual use of information communication technologies.

Corporatization of education is a serious problem which has resulted in political social and economic disparities. However the world being a capitalist society, it is expected that the notions of profit maximization and cost reduction are inherent in this system. However the approach of standardization of education and its configuration make education lose its core value of bettering the individual by making the person a mere component of the industrial processes of capitalism. As Mathews (2011) asserts it is possible to have a mix of the core principles of education and the capitalist economy. It is possible to have an education which takes into account both the openness and diversity of learning and the needs of the industrial capitalist economy.

I do disagree that the contemporary world discriminates in terms of giving highly rewarding jobs. The nature of the education system has made it that persons will normally opt for different professions and jobs according to their education. Given that the socially disadvantaged will generally opt for standardized courses they will tend to be restricted to certain professions which they opt to undertake for their marketability (Buckingham, 2010).

However I do agree with you that education system sought to enhance participation and incorporate the needs of learners in globalization of education according to their context. 


Lauder, H., Brown, P., Dillabough, J., and Halsey, A. (2004). Introduction: the prospects for education: individualization, globalization and social change.

Christie, P. (2008) ‘Globalisation, the “knowledge economy” and education’. In Opening the Doors of Learning, Johannesburg: Heinemann, pp.41-71.

Buckingham, D. (2010) The future of media literacy in the digital age: Some challenges for policy and practice’. Media Education Journal. Available on line at:

Spring, J. (2008) ‘Globalization of education’ in Globalization of Education: An Introduction, New York & Oxon: Routledge, pp.1-28.

Matthews, J. (2011) ‘Hybrid pedagogies for sustainability education’, Review of Education, Pedagogy and Cultural Studies, 33 (3), pp.260-277.