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Crime and Crime Theories

Crime and Crime Theories

Crime is one of the vices whose rate keeps on increasing in the society today. For example, the rate of crime in Victoria, Australia, increases by 8% each year (Percy, 2017). The different forms of crimes in today’s society include robbery, rape, murder, kidnapping and many others. The increasing crime rates make people feel unsafe in their home, at the workplace and even while out in the streets since they understand that they are potential targets to criminals. It is important for the society to devise strategies to use to reduce the rates of crime and thereby increase the safety of individuals across the world. Over the years, researchers have developed theories meant to explain crime patterns as well as how to prevent or reduce crimes.

One of the theories that have been developed is the environmental criminology theoretical framework, which focuses on assessing an environment and thereby determining the dangerous areas, times and characteristics that make one or something a target (Reyns, 2014). This theoretical framework seeks to identify these factors in order to help members of the society identify areas that have a higher risk of crime occurrence as well as what factors increase one’s chance of being a victim. The framework further assesses time as a factor that people should consider while strategizing on how to avoid being crime victims. Society members should therefore combine an assessment of time and place to avoid being victims of crimes.

The theories also include the crime triangle concept, which explains the people or things that have to be present for a crime to occur. The crime triangle theory explains that in order for a crime to occur, there has to be a victim such as vehicle or property as well as an offender (Boba, 2006). The offender has to be motivated to commit crime for example, by lack of money to buy food. Both the victim and the offender have to be in the same place for the crime to occur. However, there are people that are tasked with preventing crimes. One of these persons is the offender’s handler, who is supposed to keep the offender from committing a crime. They also include the managers of a place. They are responsible for ensuring that the areas they oversee are safe for those in it. The third group is that of guardians, who are in charge of keeping the target safe. When these groups of people do their jobs effectively, the rates of crime in any area is bound to reduce dramatically (Boba, 2006). For example, if a guardian parked his or her vehicle in his or her garage, it would reduce the chances of an offender stealing it.

Crime pattern theory is also another theory developed to help assess and understand crime. This theory focuses on identifying the areas within which certain crimes happen (Boba, 2006). It achieves this by identifying the potential victims of a certain crime as well as the potential offenders. It further identifies the areas within which the offenders’ and the victims’ paths may intersect. By doing so, the theory helps the society members identify areas that may have high rates of crimes. With this information, the potential victims can avoid the predicted areas and thereby lead to a reduction in the levels of crimes in the identified areas.


Boba, R. (2006). Crime analysis and crime mapping. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Percy, K. (2017). Victoria’s crime rate rises 8pc in a year; robberies and thefts drive increases. Retrieved on August 17, 2017 from

Reyns, B. (2014). Environmental criminology: Evolution, theory and practice. Security Journal, 29(3), e1-e3.