Reflective Journal Part A Essay Example

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Reflective Journal Part A

A1: The environmental cues that influence my expectations include clothes (dressing), location and distance while communicating. The type of clothes whether a business suit or social outfit influences my engagement because it determines the type of communication, and can easily transform the entire communication from business to social engagement (Neale, 2011). The location is also influential in that engaging in a hotel is different with engaging in an office. The location of communication informs on engagement and entire approach to the communication (Clutterbuck and Hirst, 2012). For example, I take a more social approach to communication in a hotel compared with the official mode of communication at the workplace (Price and Ota, 2015). The distance is also crucial in that when I am in a room with different people, and I want to engage with an individual, I can text the individual, which may address my communication objectives.

A2: The communicator and audience have a responsibility to each other. The aim of communication is sharing, meaning the communicator should understand the requirements of the communication and thoughtful of the audiences and devices ways of accomplishing the necessity. For example, the communicator can appreciate the context and implement the content based on the message fundamental (Clutterbuck and Hirst, 2012). The audience should also support through presenting signs such as nodding heads, interest with the topic or illustrating unsatisfaction in a constructive manner (Strong, 2013). An audience is usually a group meaning what an individual does not like, should not affect the integrity of the communication, and perseverance is important. Hence, the communicator and audience have to champion a supportive framework.

A6 Doublespeak is the deliberate use of works to obscure or change the meaning of communication or some words. It is sometimes important to use doublespeak in making or addressing tricky or unpleasant or negative situation or circumstances not sound that bad (Tynan et al. 2013). It reduces the negative impact of communication to incorporate the feelings and emotions of an individual (Neale, 2011). For example, people commonly state an individual has “passed on” rather than the individual has died. Other examples include “downsizing” rather than firing people, “senior citizen” rather than an old person, and “put to sleep” rather than euthanize (Clutterbuck and Hirst, 2012). Hence, doublespeak is permissible provided the feelings, emotions, and objectives of the audience are considered/integral.

A7: Audiences sometimes have short attention span forcing the speaker or presenter to place indicators and implement actions that capture the attention of the audiences. Researchers use signposts to indicate the flow of information and any related changes. Keyworth (2015) has used signposting in his thesis presentation through the use of words such as conclusion, with the aim (p. 251), however (p. 255), additionally (p. 118) and to summarize (p. 45). The author has employed the approach to cement his claims and present the flow of statements relative to other academicians. The article is a scientific paper meaning it is important to collate and present different perspectives of material and scientific processes (Tynan et al. 2013). These processes cannot be fulfilled without guiding the audiences of the article on chronologically and systematic fundamentals of the study. Without signposting, it becomes difficult to understand and appreciate the article.

A9: Self-concept incorporates numerous variables with a collection of beliefs about oneself including elements of racial identity, sexual identity, gender identity and academic performance (Clutterbuck and Hirst, 2012). My self-concept dictates my approaches when communicating with specific people in that there are certain terms or wording appropriate to specific audiences (Price and Ota, 2015). Appreciating and perseverance of other cultures and expected audiences of the articles/my writing means that I have to employ a self-concept that incorporates the views of other audiences and their perceptions.

A10: The general perception of self-fulfilling prophecy is premised on behavior and belief. In psychological perspective, people behavior in an expected outcome and implement numerous measures focused on the achievement of the requirement (Price and Ota, 2015). Any negative or positive expectation about people, events and circumstance might influence an individual behavior in a manner that encourages the individual to embrace negative behaviors towards fulfilling the expectations (Neale, 2011). Self-fulfilling prophecy employs a cyclic approach whereby variables such as cause, reinforce, influence and impact dictate perceptions and expectations (Tynan et al. 2013). Hence, in psychological approach, it is tuning an individual behavior and beliefs with defined expectations, and the expectations have to be met based on strategies the individual employs or relates.

A11: Perception is the ability of an individual to understand the environment through the use of senses. Perception is a limiting and encouraging aspect of communication and advancing day to day activities (Clutterbuck and Hirst, 2012). Variables such as stereotyping, racial identity, communication, smell e.g. perfume easily impacts communication and may result in a different understanding of communication or concept (Tynan et al. 2013). For example, radicalization is a major issue and is easier to associate a cultural or religious orientation with certain vices in the communication (Price and Ota, 2015). Hence, perception champions and limits engagement/processes and individuals can easily choose whether to be influenced by perception. The influence can be addressed through awareness and education in addition to supportive information. Therefore, it is possible to choose how to perceive things.

A15: Choice and use of language in a document are important since it avails the opportunity to the audience to appreciate or understand the message. A topic under discussion may be environmental sustainability, and the targeted audiences are the children and business owners/managers (Price and Ota, 2015). These two audiences have a different understanding of environment and measures that can be implemented in sustainability objectives (Freedman, Pringle and Yalden, 2014). For example, the business owners/managers may be informed on the integration of sustainability measures such as the use of solar energy and recycling of the waste (Tynan et al. 2013). The children can be informed on managing water during brushing teeth and importance of disposing wastes effectively to the right dustbin. It is easier to engage the business owners/managers to engage the children because or prior experiences and market dynamics.

A20: When preparing a speech for a diverse audience, the speaker has to consider numerous variables and conditions. Some aspects that have to be considered include the significance of time, sticking to simple language, understanding the content of the information, the system of communication, avoiding obscene gestures, learning norms, and cultures, and appreciating the value system (Clutterbuck and Hirst, 2012). For example, in the USA, background information is not important compared to Germany where repetition of background information is crucial (Neale, 2011). The use of signs and gestures is important, but it is important to understand the situation (Price and Ota, 2015). For example, the use of finger sign “ok” may be obscene in Latin America. The V sign or the sign indicating “two” through the use of middle and index fingers is offensive in the UK while in Vietnam, it is a symbol of peace. In a situation whereby an individual engages UK and Vietnamese, it is advisable to avoid the use of V sign.

A21: A rhetorical situation is made up of an audience, a medium, an issue, and rhetoric, at a minimum. Knowing and understanding the rhetorical situation is important in that it assists an individual to write effectively (Freedman, Pringle and Yalden, 2014). The writer is able to organize their writing and to develop the entire information through the audience-focused framework (Price and Ota, 2015). Focusing on rhetorical situation enables effective persuasion and ensures the audiences embraces or relate to the message. Therefore, the rhetorical situation allows formulation and passing the message with a focus on the outcome (Clutterbuck and Hirst, 2012). Furthermore, numerous variables are considered during the period to ensure the ideals of communication and engagement are effectively and reflect the aims of communication.

A23: Ethics is a code and standard that defines what is wrong and what is right. The organization of presentation involves ethics since part of ethics is ensuring the targeted audiences understand the content (Price and Ota, 2015). The presentation should follow a definite format, which is informative and easily appreciated by the audiences (Neale, 2011). However, mixing the content and implementing a complex presentation format means that the audiences cannot understand the topic (Clutterbuck and Hirst, 2012). The topic may be integral, but the presentation may fail to deliver the message (Freedman, Pringle and Yalden, 2014). Hence, involving ethics is crucial since the needs and expectations of the audiences are considered in its formulation and implementation.

A24: The five structural elements are attention statement, introduction, body, conclusion and residual message. American Rhetoric (n.d.) starts with attention statement pointing the significance of Republic Party in discussing AIDs and HIV. The introduction part presents the overview of the topic and the aim of the speech. The body parts present an array of information including the role of politics in raising awareness, the threat of AIDS, perception, the AIDS community, stereotypes, and the role of the society. The paper concludes through creating awareness and addressing negatives of AIDs and HIV. Therefore, the speech discusses AIDs, persons afflicted by AIDS and the perception of the society and community on the problem and issue with defined roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders in addressing the problem.


ABCMinds. (Aug. 16, 2010). NLP communication model. Retrieved from

American Rhetoric. Mary Fisher: 1992 Republican National Convention Address. Retrieved from

Clutterbuck, D. and Hirst, S., 2012. Talking business: Making communication work. Routledge.

Freedman, A., Pringle, I. and Yalden, J., 2014. Learning to write: first language/second language. Routledge.

Keyworth, C., 2015. Risk Communication and Lifestyle Behaviour Change in People with Psoriasis.
University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in the Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences. Retrieved from

Neale, T.A., 2011. Speechwriting in Perspective: A Brief Guide to Effective and Persuasive Communication. DIANE Publishing.

Price, D. and Ota, C., 2015. The Assertive Practitioner: How to Improve Early Years Practice Through Effective Communication. Routledge.

Strong, J., 2013. Talk For Writing In Secondary Schools: How To Achieve Effective Reading, Writing And Communication Across The Curriculum. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Tynan, L., Wolstencroft, D., Edmondson, B., Swanson, D., Martin, A., Grace, D. and Creed, A., 2013. Communication for business. Oxford University Press.