Cotton Exudates Essay Example
The research on ways in which cotton root exudates as belowground defense materials has been researched widely with most scholars focusing their attention on rhizospheres (Shi et al., 2015). This area of agriculture has been progressively addressed to understand ways in which cotton roots undergo complex ecological processes. From the perspectives of these scholars, there is need to look at the cotton and how the process of exudation especially the role of cotton root exudation as the interaction between its roots and other plants, nematodes and microbes present in the rhizosphere. However, the basis of understanding the entire link between cotton exudates and rhizosphere is the root function. Cotton exudates are essential factors that determine or structure the rhizosphere community of bacteria (Sangramsing, Raju & Charansing, 2015). The cornerstone of Sangramsing et al. (2015) research is to provide an understanding on the different functions of cotton plants such as defense against micro-organisms such as pathogenic materials and ground for chemotaxis that helps in the attraction and repelling of populations and microbial species.
Agriculturalists who have taken their case studies on countries such as India, Pakistan and Kenya have noted that cotton root exudates are essential in the sense that they provide nutrients thus leading to higher prevalence of degrading strains of bacteria (Ashraf et al. 2015; Li et al. 2015). While the basis of the argument is that the root serves the purpose of anchoring, the fate of cotton’s exudates in rhizosphere and the true nature of their reaction in the soil form the basis for understanding the roots. Just like Sangramsing et al. (2015) noted, the rhizosphere continue to support different groups of bacteria that can stimulate cotton growth.
Researches on cotton exudates have stretched beyond what Sangramsing et al. (2015) have presented above. Recent agriculturists have focused on the effect of root exudes from two transgenic insect-resistant cotton line on the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium Oxysporum (Amel, Mohammed and Abdelhafid, 2012). Taking a case study on China cotton growing, agriculturalists have noted that cotton exudes is seen in terms of the attenuation of the disease resistance in what they term as transgenic insect-resistant cotton to element of pathogens like cotton Fusarium Oxysporum; which again, has become one of the essential factors that restrict cotton production in the country (Amel et al., 2012). Since cotton Fusarium Oxysporum has been found to be invading the seedlings of the cotton from their roots, it has been essential to carry an exploration to ascertain the reasons for the attenuation of disease resistance with regard to transgenic cotton, taking into consideration the composition and components of the root exudates. This finding is related to research from two agriculturalists who investigated cotton exudates in Turkey cotton plantation (Sangramsing et al., 2015; Shi et al., 2015). Their findings indicated that the relation between the root exudates and the resistance of any disease (Fusarium Oxysporum) is connected with the components from cotton root exudates as well as the microorganisms that are present in the rhizosphere. What these studies argue about as far as cotton root exudes is concerned is that exudes tend to supply little nutrients to pathogens and in this case Fusarium Oxysporum and to some extent, such process will have inhibitory materials to pathogens. Contemporary scholars have confirmed such studies adding that root exudes have potential impacts on the growth of cotton. Taking a field research on cotton plantation in Sub-Sahara Africa, including Kenya, Karuri (2012) noted that effects of root exudates from cotton on Fusarium Oxysporum and Verticillium Dihiliae controlled the spread of diseases to cotton. In particular, the researcher realized that cotton root exudates from resistant lines were able to inhibit germination of pores and mycelial growth. Contrary to this, the root exudates of the cotton plants that had susceptible lines enhanced the growth of different pathogens including Fusarium Oxysporum and Verticillium Dihiliae. Therefore, as far as these studies are concerned, the root exudates from the transgenic lines are likely to promote germination of spore and growth of mycelia of cotton Fusarium Oxysporum and Verticillium Dihiliae. However, root exudes from parental line where cotton root exudates from what Shi et al. (2015) adopted as Zhong-41 promoted the growth of mycelia of cotton and germination of spore. It is therefore possible to conclude that there have often been observations of attenuation of resistance to Fusarium Oxysporum and Verticillium Dihiliae.
There has been paucity of information regarding cotton’s spatial localization of the process of root exudation. Few agriculturalists have suggested that the process and patterns of cotton exudation is not homogenous especially along the root axis (Karuri, 2012). This argument is valid owing to the fact that phytosiderophores release in response to iron deficiency has often been concentrated in the apex or the apical areas of cotton root. What needs to be added as far as the argument on the homogeneity of cotton exudation is concerned is two-fold. First, release of organic anions is likely to follow a heterogeneous process along cotton roots which again, should be consistent with the presence of acidity or alkalinity gradient from the tip to the base of any cotton root. Secondly, there is need for succinct understanding of physical and spatial localization of the sites where cotton exudation takes place in the roots as this will facilitate the process of elucidation of cotton-microbe and interactions. These views are supported in researches such as Sangramsing et al. (2015) who noted that external signals from invasive plants and pathogens may determine the region of cotton root where they release of exudes takes places. It therefore means that if there is link between the presence invasive plants to cotton plant or pathogens, especially when dealing with cotton plants with localized process of exudation then it is virtually unavailable for researchers and agriculturalist who have been concerned with cotton exudation.
Conclusively this study notes that the process of cotton root exudation remains complex. However, as a result of normal growth and development, a large number of inorganic and organic materials can be secreted by cotton root into the soil. Such secretions inevitably bring about changes in the soil’s physical and biochemical properties. Agriculturalists attribute such changes to root cap exudation including the processes of maintaining cotton root-soil contact, protection of the cotton roots from desiccation, lubrication of the root tip stabilization of soil micro-aggregates and storage of ions required for growth and development of cotton plants.
Amel, F., Mohammed, M., & Abdelhafid, B. (2012). Improvement of the hard exudates detection method used for computer-aided diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 4(4), 19.
Ashraf, A., Akram, M. U., & Sheikh, S. A. (2015, November). Detection of retinal whitening, cotton wool spots and retinal Hemorrhages for diagnosis of Malarial Retinopathy. In TENCON 2015-2015 IEEE Region 10 Conference (pp. 1-5). IEEE.
Karuri, H. W. (2012). Assessment of the impact of transgenic cotton expressing bacillus thuringiensis berliner insecticidal protein on soil nematodes in Mwea, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi, Kenya).
Li, X., Zhang, Y. N., Ding, C., Jia, Z., He, Z., Zhang, T., & Wang, X. (2015). Declined soil suppressiveness to Fusarium oxysporum by rhizosphere microflora of cotton in soil sickness. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 51(8), 935-946.
Sangramsing, N., Raju, S., & Charansing, N. (2015). Automated Identification of Hard Exudates and Cotton Wool Spots using Biomedical image Processing. International Journal of Computer Applications, 131(5), 1-4.
Shi, X., Wu, H. S., Li, J., Ren, Q. Q., Wang, M. Y., Liu, Y. D., … & Xiao, S. H. (2015). Influences of root exudates of bivalent transgenic cotton plants on defense proteins and the growth of conventional parental cotton (Zhong 1423-6). Research on Crops, 16(4), 787-791.
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